Open Access Short communication

Households’ Waste Scenario during COVID-19 Pandemic: An Outlook from Bangladesh

Mou Rani Sarker, Md. Abdur Rouf Sarkar

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i330247

With pandemic progression and the stay-at-home situation, household are producing more dangerous medical waste. Households became the most vulnerable and unprotected sector of coronavirus transmission due to the unconsciousness and lack of guidance of hazardous waste management. Therefore, waste management is a critical concern to public health. This study examines household waste generation and waste management issues in Bangladesh during COVID-19 from March 2020 to August 2021. The study showed that adequate identification, collection, transportation, processing, separation, and disposal are the challenges of safe waste management. Each activity bears a high risk of getting infected because of lack of proper guidance and protection. Moreover, the improper disposal of hazardous waste causes immense soil, water and air pollution that might have negative effects to the human body. Some suggested guidelines to a better COVID-19 household’s waste management are discussed in the context of Bangladesh.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Impact of Rainfall Variability on Drinking Water Production at Treatment Plants in Nzoia River Basin, Kenya

Ernest Othieno Odwori

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 8-29
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i330248

Increased wet season rainfall is associated with improved water supply at point water sources and improved river flows and water reservoir levels. For piped water supply schemes with surface water intakes, this is supposed to enhance operations since there is adequate raw water unlike in the dry season where operations are interrupted due to insufficient flows. However, this is not the case in Nzoia River Basin as established by this study. As rainfall increases, drinking water production in treatment plants at Moi’s Bridge, Lumakanda and Busia water supplies decrease and vice versa. Nzoia River Basin is one of the regions that is highly vulnerable to climate variability in Kenya, hence understanding rainfall variability and trends is important for better water resources management and especially drinking water supply. This study aimed at assessing rainfall variability and trends for 3 rainfall stations in Nzoia River Basin; Leissa Farm Kitale, Webuye Agricultural Office and Bunyala Irrigation Scheme and its impact on drinking water production at Moi’s Bridge, Lumakanda and Busia water supplies treatment plants. The rainfall data used in this study covers 31 years period from 1970 to 2001 and was obtained from the Kenya Meteorological Department (KMD), Nairobi, Kenya. Monthly water supply production data for Moi’s Bridge, Lumakanda and Busia water supplies covering 15 years period from 2000 to 2014 was obtained from the County governments of Uasin Gishu, Kakamega and Busia. Rainfall variability and trend was analysed using the parametric test of Linear regression analysis and the non-parametric Mann Kendall statistical test. Monthly rainfall and monthly drinking water production was analysed using Pearson moment correlation to establish the relationship between monthly rainfall and monthly drinking water supply production at Mois Bridge, Lumakanda and Busia Water supplies treatment plants. The results of variability and trend in annual rainfall shows Webuye Agricultural Office recording declining rainfall at -0.8994 mm/31 years (-0.029 mm/ year); whereas Leissa Farm Kitale shows increasing rainfall at 1.0325 mm/31 years (0.033 mm/ year) and Bunyala Irrigation Scheme’s rainfall is increasing at 0.5245 mm/31 years (0.017 mm/ year). Drinking water supply production at Moi’s Bridge, Lumakanda and Busia water supplies has been increasing with time between 2000 and 2014. The results of Pearson moment correlation coefficient shows a strong negative relationship between monthly rainfall and monthly drinking water supply production at 0.05 significance level for Moi’s Bridge, Lumakanda and Busia water supplies. This shows that as rainfall increases, drinking water supply production in treatment plants at Moi’s Bridge, Lumakanda and Busia water supplies decreases. During the rainy season, the cost of water treatment goes up as a result of increased turbidity. Increased rainfall in Nzoia River Basin presents water treatment challenges to the existing water supply treatment plants resulting into reduced production.Water supply managers should improve the capacity of the existing water supply treatment plants to cope with the increased rainfall variability under the changing climatic conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Seasonal Fluctuations of Physicochemical Characteristics of Selected Wetlands of Kogi State, North Central, Nigeria

J. C. Ozougwu, G. U. Amana, I. Nwachukwu, C. A. Imakwu, C. U. Uzochukwu, A. E. Nwafia

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 30-39
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i330249

This study is aimed at determining the physicochemical characteristics of selected wetlands of Kogi State. From each sampled wetlands (Abu’ja and Egwubi), surface water was collected and examined for the following physicochemical parameters: hydrogen ion concentration, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids and temperature (0C) using Hanna meter. Dissolved oxygen was determined using dissolved oxygen meter. The data collected was analyzed using the Statistical Packages for Social Sciences version 20.0, Paleontological Statistics version 3.14 and Microsoft Office. Physicochemical parameters studied were not normally distributed from test of normality. They were compared using Man-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis H nonparametric tests for comparisons between two and more than two groups respectively. In Abu’ja wetland, the temperature for all the months were similar except for January and December which were significantly cooler (p < 0.05); pH was similarly constant except for January and August (p < 0.05). Dissolved solids ranged from 95 to 118 ppm with similar values between months except in March. Mean electrical conductivity ranged from 0.15 to 0.22 ms/cm. These values were similar between months in Abu’ja. Significant fluctuation occurred in dissolved oxygen on monthly basis. In Egwubi study station, temperature ranged from 20oC to 31 oC, significant difference occurred between January and May and between September and November (p < 0.05), pH was also similar between months. Dissolved solids ranged from 26 to 90 ppm. Electrical conductivity ranged from 0.2 to 0.14 ms/cm. Significant differences only occurred between April and August (p < 0.05). Dissolved oxygen was similar throughout the study period. Our result indicated that the essential minerals and other physiochemical parameters are widely distributed but some are not within the normal range of portable water for humans. Both study wetlands showed low pollution, organic waste in Abu'ja site may be handled by autochthonous bacteria and through self purification of the water body. Nutrient levels are high in wetland habitats as wetlands have rich biomes and support high level of biodiversity. The water is suitable for irrigation and livestock consumption.  The presence of the plankton is a pointer to the fact that the two wetlands possess adequate water quality for establishment of great biodiversity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Lime, manure and Inorganic Fertilizer Effects on Soil Chemical Properties, Maize Yield and Profitability in Acidic Soils in Central Highlands of Kenya

W. Winnie Kimiti, M. W. Mucheru-Muna, J. N. Mugwe, K. F. Ngetich, M. N. Kiboi, D. N. Mugendi

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 40-51
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i330250

In Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), acidic soil covers 29% of the total area. About 13% of the Kenyan total land area has acidic soils, widely distributed in croplands of the central and western Kenyan regions. The high soil acidity, coupled with soil nutrient depletion, negatively affects crop productivity in the region. We conducted an on-farm experiment to determine the effect of lime, manure, and phosphatic fertilizer application, either solely or combined, on soil chemical properties, maize yield, and profitability in acidic soils of Tharaka Nithi County, Kenya. The treatments were different rates of manure, lime, and P fertilizer. The experiment was designed as a randomized complete block design replicated ten times in farmer’s fields. Soil sampling was done at a depth of 0-20 cm prior to the start of the experiment, after crop harvest of SR2016 and LR2017 seasons. The samples were analyzed in the laboratory following standard methods. Results showed that lime significantly increased soil pH by 10.6% during the SR2016 and by 17.7% during the LR2017. Similarly, treatments with lime reduced exchangeable acidity and increased soil available P. Treatments with inorganic fertilizers had significantly higher maize grain yield in comparison with treatments with the sole application of lime, manure, and lime + manure. Lime + fertilizer + manure treatment gave the highest average maize grain yield (5.1 t ha−1), while control gave the lowest (1.5 t ha−1) during the LR2017 season. Economic returns were low due to the prevailing low rainfall experienced during the study period during the SR2016 season. Lime combined with inorganic fertilizer treatment recorded the highest returns (128.75 USD ha-1) followed by sole inorganic fertilizer (105.94 USD ha-1) during the LR2017 season. The study recommends a combination of both lime and inorganic fertilizer for enhanced maize production and profitability in Tharaka-Nithi County, Kenya.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Salinity Intrusion on Coastal Agriculture and Farmer’s Livelihoods in Bangladesh

Md. Anowarul Islam

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 52-60
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i330251

The main objective of this study is to explore the major impacts of salinity intrusion on coastal agriculture and farmer’s livelihoods in Bangladesh. The study has attempted to identify some effective measures for the sustainability of coastal agriculture. The study was conducted based on both primary and secondary data during 2010-2020. To collect primary data, a total of 150 respondents out of 240 households were randomly interviewed and samples are drawn proportionately from study sites. Descriptive and inferential statistics have been done to analyze data. The ArcGIS mapping tool was adopted to represent the spatio-temporal change of saline area. It reveals that due to high salinity intrusion the coastal agriculture has already experienced noticeable adverse impacts especially in increasing rate of salinity, loss in cultivable land and production. Shrimp farming with brackish water and tidal inundation are explored as the main causes for salinity intrusion. In study sites, the level of salinity in 2020 is much stronger than in 2010. It reveals that due to strong salinity in agricultural land the farmer's are suffering from low income, unemployment, scarcity in irrigation and freshwater. It was identified that the planned shrimp culture, management of the embankment, cultivation of saline tolerant crops and raising public awareness will be the possible measures to control the intrusion of salinity. Therefore, it is expected that the evaluation of the revealed impacts of salinity intrusions and the explored measures will be effective to ensure the sustainability of coastal agriculture in Bangladesh.