Open Access Original Research Article

Anaerobic Decolorization of Sulfonated Azo Dyes by Sulfate Reducing Bacteria

V. Sreelekshmi, Salom Gnana Thanga Vincent

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i230242

Aim: The present study was done to find out ability of sulfate reducing bacteria to reduce sulfonated azo dyes found in the textile effluent.

Study Design: Isolate Sulfate reducing bacterial strains from dye contaminated soil samples, inoculate and incubate dye supplemented media under static anaerobic condition and measure the decolorization using UV-VIS spectrophotometer.

Place and Duration of Study: The samples were collected from Travancore textiles Nemom, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. Laboratory analysis were performed at Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram, India. The study was done for a period of six months.

Methodology: The isolated sulfate reducing bacterial (SRB) strains were screened to test the tolerance to selected sulfonated azo dye Direct blue 71. The decolorization assay was done in Postgate media and an aliquot of samples (3mL) were withdrawn periodically, centrifuged at 10,000rpm for 15min. The supernatant was used to assay azo dye reduction by measuring residual absorption at the wavelength 594 nm of the Direct Blue 71. Results were compared with the uninoculated control. The optimization of physicochemical conditions for effective decolorization of the selected bacterial strains was studied at different environmental conditions (pH, temperature, concentration and added co-substrates such as sodium acetate, lactate and mannitol). The biodegradation of sulfonated azo dye was assessed by characterizing the metabolites formed after degradation by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). FT-IR analysis revealed only decolorization had occurred without degradation of the dye during the short incubation period of one week.

Conclusion: Degradation of azo dyes and other recalcitrant compounds by obligate anaerobes such as sulfate reducing bacteria is a slow process. Hence, extension of incubation period is necessary for the effective and complete degradation of the dye by SRB.

Open Access Original Research Article

Beneficial Insects Visiting Florals of Hamelia patens Rubiaceae (Jacq.) at a University Landscape in Nigeria

Tambeke Nornu Gbarakoro, Edache Bernard Ochekwu, Maduamaka Cyriacus Abajue, Benjamin Uzonna Ononye, Lemenebari Teteg

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 10-19
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i230243

Aim: The study was carried out to ascertain how Hamelia patens would be valuable in sustaining diversity of beneficial insects.

Study Design: Investigative cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The insects and plants were processed for identification at the Laboratories of the Department of Animal and Environmental Biology and Plant Science and Biotechnology, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Identification and curation of the insects was done at Insect Museum, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria. The study started in June and ended in September 2018.

Methodology: The heights and canopy sizes of the Hamelia patens were measured with range pole and measuring tape. Insects associated with the floral parts of Hamelia patens were collected in the morning (08:00-10:00 am) and in the evening (4:00-06:00 pm) hours, with a sweep net. They were knockdown by pyrethrum insecticide and preserved in a bottle containing 70% ethanol. They were taxonomically grouped and sent to a taxonomist at Insect Museum, Nigeria for species identification.

Results: Fifteen (15) insect species were collected on the Hamelia patens; Megachile mephistrophelica (Grib.), Megachile cinta (Fab.), Braunisca bilunta (Enderloein.), Pterandus sp., Lilioceris sp. and Virachola antalus (Hoph.) restricted their visitation on the plants only in the morning hours, Chelonus bifoveolatus (Szepg.) and Chrysolagria nairobana (Borch.) restricted their visitation in the evening hours. The remaining species were continuous on the plants. There was no significant difference (P=.05) between the number of insect species collected on taller plants and shorter ones. There was a significant difference between the insects that visited the plants in the morning and evening hours.

Conclusion: The arrival of the insects on the Hamelia patens varied but some were time dependent. The clipping of the plant’s twigs affected the abundance of insects that visit the plant.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Role of Social Media in Earthquake Awareness and Earthquake Preparedness in Myanmar

Hla Hla Aung, Kye Mon Min Swe

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 20-27
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i230244

Myanmar is an earthquake-prone country in SE Asia and all types of faulting such as strike-slip, normal, and reverse are occurring all over Myanmar territory. Apart from surface faults, the India oceanic plate is subducting obliquely beneath Burma continental plate along Sunda subduction zone. The interaction between the India plate, the Burma plate and Eurasia plate appears to be characterized by the initiation of major movements between plates switching from one to another within this tectonic region. The Sagaing Fault is a primary plate boundary between the Burma plate and Indochina plate along which most of the relative motion has occurred and will continue to occur for the geologic future. According to seismicity record in Myanmar, most of the earthquakes occurred either in the evening or at midnight or at dawn. So the people become scary because earthquake occurs without warnings. During such situation, people run immediately outside the building to the open space due to people’s survival instincts. People have anxiety which is a normal response to frightening situation. The social media interviews the earthquake researchers/ earthquake geologists why the earthquake occurs and how to protect them during earthquake. By disseminating the information on social networks, people become aware of the earthquake disaster and become focusing on effective preparedness.

Open Access Original Research Article

Crop Germinative Emergence of Maize (Zea mays) and Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana) as Affected by Plastic Waste Material

Njiru Magdalene Kagendo, Mokaya Dennis Chweya, Kitur Esther, Koske James

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 28-40
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i230245

Plastic waste material continues to present environmental challenges throughout the world.  Of greatest concern is their disposal in agricultural soils where they interfere with soil fertility due to its inability to decompose fast.  Specifically, the research examined under experimental conditions the crop germinative emergence of (Zea mays L.) and finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn) as affected by plastic waste material commonly disposed in urban and rural environments of Kenya.  The plastic types were identified by their thickness of 30 microns. The experiment was laid out in a 2 by 1 Randomized Block Design (Latin Square) with two replicates in plots each measuring 1m x 1m.  The data collected involved determination of emergence percent cover. The date of planting was noted and records were taken from the day first shoot emergence was observed in controls for 10 days.  Percent emergence measurements was done for at least 10 days and this involved taking of vertical photographs of each plot from the day first shoot emergence was observed in controls.  Assumptions of normality were found to be satisfactory and the set hypotheses were supported by the results. In the overall, there were significant differences (P<0.05) between E. coracana planted in soils mixed with 6 microns thick plastic material and the ones planted in controls. The EPC mean for the E. coracana planted in soils mixed with 30 microns thick plastic material was 25.78%, while controls had 75.58%.  There were significant differences (P<0.05) between Z. mays in soils mixed with 6 microns thick plastic material and the ones planted in controls. The EPC mean for the Z. mays planted in soils mixed with thick plastic material was 41.52%, while that of control groups was 86.18%.  In conclusion, there were a significant difference (P<0.05) in effects of 6 microns’ thick plastic material on germinative emergence of the two food crops, that is; E. coracana and Z. mays and hence the study recommends that, plastic waste material of any thickness should be avoided on farmlands where Z. mays and E. coracana are grown.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Refuse Dump on Ground Water Quality at Farin-Gida Area of Mando, Kaduna State

S. M. Adamu, A. A. Ijah, H. C. Ozoani, F. M. Rasheed, J. O. Emmanuel, T. S. Ingoroko, O. O. Adedire, E. J. Zaka

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 41-50
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i230246

This study shows the effect s of solid waste dumpsite on ground water quality in Farin-gida, Kaduna State Nigeria. Water samples were collected from six (6) different wells in three(3) strategic areas that have major dumpsites in Farin-gida. These samples were collected in November from both bore holes and hand dug wells within (0-50 meters) to the dumpsite. The following physico-chemical properties of well water was tested for, in the laboratory thus; Total Dissolve Solid, Total Alkalinity, Fluoride, PH, Turbidity and Electrical Conductivity. The results obtained as shown in table 1,2 and 3 respectively indicate that all the wells have varying levels of physico-chemical concentration that is different from the standard as recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) and Nigeria Standard for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ), which implies that the water from the study areas are not safe for drinking. Hence, should be treated.