Open Access Case study

Arable Land Pollution in Ghana: A Look at Agrochemical Plastic Waste Handling among Farmers

Frederick Kwame Yeboah, Samuel Adingo, Liu Xue-Lu

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 42-48
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i130240

The mishandling of agrochemical waste is a major environmental problem causing pollution and a threat to public health. Although the number of agrochemical companies in Ghana continues to grow exponentially, limited efforts are directed toward the proper disposal of plastic bottles after use. Consequently, the study explores the post handling activities of farmers concerning agricultural plastic waste. Using the Birim South District of the Eastern Region of Ghana as the case study, the descriptive statistics are employed to provide answers to the research questions by examining the survey responses of the 120 farmers sampled randomly from an estimated 850 farmers from 4 communities. The results suggest that farmers in the district are aware of the triple rinsing mechanism of ensuring safe disposal. Further, few farmers have had extensive training on the safe usage and disposal of pesticides. In spite, most farmers are willing to burn, bury, and reuse empty agrochemical bottles to properly dispose of after usage. The study reveals a knowledge gap in responsible usage and disposal of agrochemical bottles and the need for an appropriate management system to tackle the challenge.

Open Access Original Research Article

Community Knowledge and Perception on Climate Change and Drinking Water Supply in Nzoia River Basin, Kenya

Ernest Othieno Odwori

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i130237

Nzoia River Basin is one of the regions in Kenya that is highly vulnerable to climate change. An understanding of community knowledge and perception on climate change and drinking water supply will provide strategic directions for national and county government policy, adaptation strategies and development of community-based guidelines on climate change. This study assessed community knowledge and perception on climate change and drinking water supply in Nzoia River Basin. A cross-sectional survey design was used. Three counties were randomly selected from the basin for study with Busia representing the lower catchment, Kakamega middle catchment and Trans Nzoia upper catchment. The study was carried out from May, 2017 to September, 2017. Multistage random sampling technique was used to select the 403 households administered with questionnaires. An observation checklist was used by the interviewers to collect household- and community-related information. The study results revealed that the community largely comes from low socio-economic background: only 24 % had post secondary education or higher, the majority were small scale farmers, housewives, casual workers and househelps (58 %), and only 25 % earned a monthly income above Ksh. 20,000 (equivalent to US $200). The majority of the participants 81 % had some knowledge about climate change but 19 % did not. On level of knowledge about climate change, 70% know a little/something about climate change, 21% know nothing about climate change and 9% know a lot about climate change. Majority of respondents, 76% receive climate change news from mass media (radio, newspaper and magazines, television); and 81 % point out that climate change will have public health risks in the community. The knowledge level about climate change in the basin was average. National and county governments should work with the sector stakeholders in the basin to improve community knowledge and perception regarding climate change, drinking water supply and health needs with proper content. The results of this study will go a long way in bridging the gap between policy formulation and building adaptive capacity to climate change in the basin.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dynamics of the Reconstruction of Termite Mounts of the Genus Cubitermes in the Bondoe Savannah Forest, Central African Republic

Solange Patricia Wango, Guy Josens, Lucie Aba-Toumnou

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 20-29
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i130238

The use of termite mounds as an alternative to chemical fertilizers has grown in tropical developing countries. Termite mounds also play an important role in ecology and these studies were conducted on dynamic of the reconstruction of termite mounds of the genus Cubitermes in the Bondoé savannah from Central African Republic (CAF). The focus on this particular group may be due to their abundance and conspicuous mounds, compared with the diffuse belowground nests inhabited by soldier less soil-feeding termites. The hypothesis of this work was that the termite mounds of Cubitermes (Cubitermes sankurensis and Cubitermes ugandensis) could be reconstructed after removal of hats, trunks at ground level or when termite mounds are dug up 10 cm below the ground. Five (5) experiments were set up to follow the dynamics of the reconstruction of termite mounds during the dry and rainy seasons. The results show that termite mounds with hats removed in one operation rebuild better the following year (25-30% in the rainy season, 50-60% in the dry season). When the removal was done at ground level, an average of 22.5% reconstruction was recorded in the rainy season and 25-30% reconstruction observed in the dry season after one year. Termite mounds dug 10 cm below the ground did not perform better. The removal of hats during the dry season is an option for the rational management of Cubitermes termite mounds in agriculture in CAR.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluating Vegetation Response to Climate Variability over Japan

Adigun Paul Ayodele, Adawa Ifeoluwa Seun

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 30-41
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i130239

Vegetation plays a significant role in the exchange of energy, water and carbon between the atmosphere and land surface, understanding its response to climate variability is of great importance for climate adaptation studies. This study examined Seasonal June-July- August, and December-January-February(JJA and DJF) vegetation response to Temperature(T) and Rainfall(R) variability. Vegetation response to climate dynamics over Japan are still poorly understood, in other to quantify these response spatio-temporal distribution of T and R were investigated, vegetations changes was  also accessed utilizing MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data from 2007-2016(10 years) along with T and R datasets from 1987-2017 (31 years), The NDVI patterns show a checked heterogeneity relating to seasonal variations in climates,  our findings further reveals Northern region record an  increasing trend in T and R, standard deviation of 0.48, 9.66, with CV of 6.63%, 9.25% respectively were recorded. Also, an increasing  trend in T and R  was equally observed in the southern region with standard deviation of 0.43, 28.5, by a CV of 2.47% and 15.05. Further analysis revealed critical patterns in the NDVI during DJF months and then afterward  NDVI was seen with critical expanding values during the JJA month and diminishing NDVI patterns were seen over similar districts. The result further made it clear that NDVI changes were highly connected to different  T and R  patterns over the region while seasonal mean NDVI showed a critical increment for JJA in the North and DJA in the south.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Influencing Climate Variability Adaptation Strategies among Small-Scale Farmers in Kitui County, Kenya

Lenah Mutindi Mulyungi, Sharon Chepkemboi Waswa

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 49-69
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i130241

Climate variability poses a major challenge for small holder rain fed agricultural production with a relatively greater impact on small scale farmers worldwide. Kitui County, Kenya, particularly remains relatively less focused on climate change and farmer understanding of climate variability response strategies. This study sought to assess variability in climate (rainfall and temperature) in Kitui County from 1980-2012 and assess influence of household socio-economic factors on farmer’s level of knowledge on climate variability adaptation techniques. The study also investigated the challenges faced by farmers in applying climate variability adaptation techniques. To achieve the objectives outlined above, a survey design was employed and a sample of 387 respondents selected. Majority of the respondents were small scale farmers in Kitui County. Questionnaires were designed and administered to the selected subjects to solicit data on climate adaptation techniques and socioeconomic factors influencing farmers’ knowledge levels on climate variability adaptation techniques. Data were statistically analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences and results discussed and presented in tables, charts and graphs. The study found that climate has over the years varied with temperatures having increased by 2⁰C in the 1980s and early 1990s. The rainfall has reduced to less than 600mm with the lowest rainfall (226mm) being recorded in 2006. This implies that the Kitui County is becoming drier and hotter. These findings were ascertained by majority of the respondents (91.1%) who agreed that rainfall patterns had varied in the last ten years. The study found that there were no significant differences on how local farmers adapted to the changes in climate with regard to income, age and even ownership of land. An exception however, was on education levels with the study finding significant statistical differences (p<0.005) on how farmers with different levels of education adapted to climatic variability and change.