Open Access Short Research Article

Diversity of Pteridophyte Flora in Rajamala, Eravikulam National Park, Kerala, India

M. S. Arjun, Raju Antony, A. Azhar Ali, C. Abhirami, M. M. Sreejith

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 28-36
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2021/v15i430235

Aims: To enumerate the fern diversity in the disturbed landscapes of Rajamala part of Eravikulam National Park, Western Ghats

Study Design: Purposive sampling method was adopted in the study area and habitats suitable for ferns were surveyed.

Place and Duration of Study: The study area is Rajamala, a tourist impacted site inside Eravikulam National Park in Kerala, India. Intensive field explorations were carried out in this area during February 2018- April 2019, to document the ferns and fern-allies.

Methodology: A preliminary study was conducted in February 2018 to identify the probable habitats of ferns for further detailed study. Purposive sampling was done in the study area considering the most suitable habitats in both shola ecosystems and grassland ecosystems of the area. Materials for herbaria were processed using standard methods. The collected plants were identified with the help of standard field guides and flora. The potential medicinally important ferns were also listed out.

Results: 54 species of pteridophytes including fern and fern allies belonging to sixteen different families were found from the Rajamala region of Eravikulam National Park. Aspleniaceae was the most common family with 11 species followed by Polypodiaceae. The majority of the Pteridophytes found in the region are showing terrestrial habit. Eleven species found in the study site are medicinally important.

Conclusion: Despite the high tourism pressure in the study area, pteridophyte species richness is higher in the Rajamala region of Western Ghats. The suitable habitat with ideal substrate conditions and year-long moisture availability in the substrates could be the reason for a higher number of pteridophyte species in this area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Solid Waste Composition and Management in Selected Markets and Residential Areas of Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna

A. A. Ijah, A. S. Abubakar, H. C. Ozoani, S. Adamu, O. O. Adedire, E. J. Zakka, F. M. Rasheed, O. Olukotun, S. Omodona

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2021/v15i430232

Samples of Municipal solid waste from dumps situated within four (4) markets located at Kawo, Monday, Sabo Tasha and Mando respectively, and two (2) residential areas located at Kabala Costain and Anguwan Sanusi in Kaduna metropolis were collected and segregated into various classifiable bulks; Organic, Inorganic and bacteria flora of the dumps were compared between the two categories of land users. The results obtained showed that there was a wide variation in the composition of waste in these two land use areas, organic waste made up of plant matters (Leaves, Grasses, Stumps food residues, Vegetables and ash) in this study has the highest percentage composition (65%) in market areas and 35.6% in residential areas, for inorganic waste consisting of glass, papers, metal and plastics account for 35% in market areas. Bacteria isolates from the dumps with their respective percentage prevalence were: E. coli (88.90%), Staphylococcus aureus (81.7%), Salmonella (47.3%), Klebsiella sp (44.1%), Shigella sp (46.6%) and Proteus Sp (35.2%) in market areas while in residential area the bacteria isolates 7prevalence showed: (57.5%), (44.2%),(28.1%),(25.2%),(17.8%) and (14.4%) respectively.    

Open Access Original Research Article

Bioremediation of Some Reactive Dyes Commonly used in Fabric Re-dyeing by Chlorella vulgaris

Zainab M. Sani, Aisha S. Dalhatu, Baha’uddeen S. Adam, Kasim Mohammed, Yusuf Y. Muhammad, Sani Ibrahim

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 10-19
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2021/v15i430233

Aim: The work was aimed at assessing the potential of Chlorella vulgaris in remediation of reactive dyes.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biological Sciences, Department of Plant Biology and Department of Biochemistry, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria, between January 2019 and December 2019.

Methodology: Wastewater containing individual reactive dyes: reactive red 198 (RR198), reactive yellow 176 (RY176), reactive green 19 (RG19), reactive orange 122 (RO122), reactive red 195 (RR195) and reactive violet 1 (RV1) were collected from a local fabric re-dyeing pit at Kofar Na’isa, Kano, Nigeria. The green microalga C. vulgaris was cultured in Bold Basal medium (BBM) at 30 ± 2°C and subjected to adsorption and decolourization assays of the dyes.

Results: The highest dye removal efficiency by enzymatic action was recorded after 48 hours, while that for the biomass adsorption was at day 14, at pH 11.3 and temperature of 30°C. The percentage dye removal by adsorption and decolourization were within the ranges of 68.1-97.8% and 69.8-99.9% respectively. Dye removal decreased with increase in contact time until saturation is attained. Freundlich’s isotherm model was best fitted for the adsorption of the dyes with a strong linear correlation coefficient, R2 ranging from 0.954-0.811. There was a strong linear relationship and high statistical significance among the dyes for both decolourization and adsorption (P value; .01).

Conclusion: Chlorella vulgaris was found to be effective in the removal of reactive dyes from textile wastewater samples. The results revealed C. vulgaris to be a cost-effective and eco-friendly biosorbent that can be used for the treatment of wastewaters containing toxic dyes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Monitoring Land Use and Land Cover Change of Forest Ecosystems of Shendurney Wildlife Sanctuary, Western Ghats, India

H. Bilyaminu, P. Radhakrishnan, K. Vidyasagaran, K. Srinivasan

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 20-27
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2021/v15i430234

Understanding forest degradation due to human and natural phenomena is crucial to conserving and managing remnant forest resources. However, forest ecosystem assessment over a large and remote area is usually complex and arduous. The present study on land use and land cover change detection of the Shendurney Wildlife Sanctuary forest ecosystems was carried out to utilize the potential application of remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS). Moreover, to understand the trend in the forest ecosystem changes. The supervised classification with Maximum Likelihood Algorithm and change detection comparison approach was employed to study the land use and land cover changes, using the Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM±) and Landsat 8 OLI-TIRS using data captured on July 01, 2001, and January 14, 2018. The study indicated the rigorous land cover changes. It showed a significant increase in the proportion of degraded forest with negligible gain in the proportion of evergreen forest from 21.31% in 2001 to 22.97% in 2018.  A substantial loss was also observed in moist deciduous from 27.11 % in 2001 to 17.23 % in 2018. The result of the current study indicated the degree of impacts on forests from the various activities of their surroundings. This study provides baseline information for planning and sustainable management decisions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination the Petrophysical and Natural Radioactivity Properties of Nubian Sandstone Aquifer at the Area of Northwest El Ain Village, Sharq El-Oweinat Area, Southwestern Desert, Egypt

Mohamed Z. Twfiq, Fardous M. Zarif, A. Massoud, Ayman M. Al-Temamy

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 37-55
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2021/v15i430236

The Nubian sandstone aquifer's hydrogeophysical and natural radioactivity parameters at the Northwestern part of El Ain village, Sharq El Oweinat, Southwestern desert, Egypt are resolved using geophysical well logging and natural radioactivity techniques. The study aims to monitor the phenomenon of appearing an unusual high gamma-ray at a zone of high resistivity record. A nest of well logs is collected to assess how the phenomenon is widespread. Results of correlated well logs are clarified that this phenomenon at zone between 80 and 100 m and zone of 200 and 230m depth is noticed.  The petro-physical properties are estimated from the recorded well logs. The results showed that the percentage of the average of effective porosity % varies between 20 and 28.2%, while average vary from 2 to 12.5 %, which indicates that the aquifer of Nubian Sandstone is classified as a clean aquifer. The natural radioactivities of the studied area in the rock samples were evaluated using high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The results indicated that the average value of Th-232 is (51.32 ±4.92%) Bq/kg, Ra-226 is (29.03 ± 4.68%) Bq/kg while the radioactivity concentration of K-40 exists only in one sample with low concentration.