Open Access Original Research Article

Risk Assessment of Poisonous Metals in Water and Soil at Two Abandoned Lead-Zinc Mines at Yonov, Benue State

Samuel N. Paul, Bolaji B. Babatunde

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2021/v15i330227

Aim: The study was aimed at determining the risk assessment of toxic metal concentration in soil and water at two abandoned Lead-Zinc mines Yonov District, Logo, Benue State, Nigeria.

Study design:  comparative cross-sectional study.

Place and duration of study: This study was carried out at the Bruce Powel Toxicology & Biodiversity Laboratory, Animal and Environmental Biology Department, University of Port Harcourt, Analysis at Giolee Global Services Limited Port Harcourt, Nigeria from 16th July to 30th October 2019.

Methodology: Eighteen composite water and soil samples were collected and analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer.

Results: The mean concentration of Lead (Pb) was higher than that of Zinc (Zn) in all eighteen samples, while, Mercury (Hg) and Cadmium (Cd) were below detection limit in all samples. Mean concentration for Pb in soil samples in the order SiteII>Site I (1.29±0.134 mg/kg>1.26±0.04mg/kg) >control 0.82±0.06 mg/kg. Zn was higher in site I, 0.70±0.10 mg/kg than site II 0.66±0.04mg/kg, and control 0.42±0.02mg/kg. Pb values in water was similar in both sites at 0.46±0.04/0.02 mg/L, while control 0.02±0.001mg/kg. Zn was higher in site II 0.05±0.01mg/L than site I 0.04±0.01Mg/L, control was 0.004±0.00 mg/L. Health risk assessment showed that Estimated daily intake of metals, hazard quotient, hazard index were all less than 1, Carcinogenic risk was within the stipulated ranged of 10-6 to 10-4.

Conclusion: Ecological and health risk indices revealed non-contamination by Poisonous metals, however, routine assessment is recommended to forestall any sudden change in the concentration that may result to deleterious effects on human health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Agricultural Valorization of Wastewater in Dschang, West - Cameroon: An Alternative to the Fertilizer Problem and to Good Environmental Management in Urban Areas

Honorine Ntangmo Tsafack, Emile Temgoua, Siméon Kenfack, Primus Azinwi Tamfuh, Thomas Njiné

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 15-26
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2021/v15i330228

The agricultural valorization of wastewater has not been part of water resource management and poverty alleviation policies in Cameroon due to insufficient knowledge on its virtues. The aim of this work was to promote sanitation by using wastewater in agriculture in Dschang Municipality, through evaluation of its fertilizing power. The study focused on three selected crops including lettuce (leaf vegetable), eggplant (fruit vegetable) and carrot (root vegetable). The experimental design was a split-plot and composed of nine (09) randomized blocks. The work was done both in the rainy season and in the dry season. Raw wastewater (E1) and urban surface water (E2) were used, while drinking water (E3) aided as control. The plots that received raw wastewater showed the best yields followed by the plots that received urban surface water. Up to 13 tons of lettuce per hectare, 19 tons of carrots per hectare and 61 tons of eggplants per hectare were obtained on the E1 plots. The yields of E1 were 1.5 to 7.4 times higher than those of E3 plots in the rainy season, and 3 to 4.4 times higher in the dry season. The yields of E2 plots were 1.1 to 2.2 times higher than those of E3 in the rainy season and 1.7 to 4.4 times higher in the dry season. These results show the fertilizing power of raw or diluted wastewater. In their poverty alleviation policy, the public authorities of the Dschang Municipality should promote the use of wastewater as fertilizers for crops not consumed raw, as alternative solution to wastewater management in this city.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Industrial Symbiosis Implementation Opportunities: A Study in a Selected Industrial Zone, Sri Lanka

E. A. C. P. Karunarathne, W. A. P. Madhushan

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 38-47
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2021/v15i330230

Most Sri Lankan Industries discharge or dispose of many waste materials in large quantities in solid, liquid, and gaseous forms. Due to the high cost of treatment, many industries dispose of wastes either to dumpsites or lowlands through third-party contractors. The haphazard disposal of untreated waste is growing into a significant problem in the country. As a result, this study was conducted to identify the application options to treat or reuse the valuable waste generated by some selected industries by implementing the industrial symbiosis process in an industrial zone. Personal interviews and questionnaires were used as the methodological tools of the study to collect firm-related waste. Material properties and feasibility facts were mainly considered concerning industrial symbiosis application potential with respect to the waste receivers' and doners' perspectives. Through the study, potential secondary usage of waste was identified, avoiding direct discharge into the environment. The result from the evaluation indicates some support to the theories that industrial symbiosis can have benefits both from an economic and environmental point of view.

Open Access Original Research Article

Raphia Palm Grove Diversity and Wetland Conservation Challenges: Evidence from Fotouni in the Western Highlands of Cameroon

Parfait Nkontcheu Kamta, Arsène Delors Gankam Foyet, Daniel Brice Nkontcheu Kenko

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 48-58
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2021/v15i330231

Aims: Assessing the conservation status of Raphia and the interaction between local populations and Raphia palm groves in Fotouni

Study Design: Descriptive Cross-Sectional

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the West Region of Cameroon (Fotouni)

Methodology: A total of 60 Raphia palm grove owners were involved in the interview using questionnaires; mapping and direct observations were additional tools.

Results: According to the perception of 93% of the surveyed respondents, the quantity of Raphia in the area has decreased over the past 15 years, due mainly to agriculture (N=48; 80.00%) and non-regeneration (N=18; 30.00%). Farming was the main activity in the area. Raphia in the area is mainly used for building, craft, food source, medicine and agriculture. Respondents confirmed the presence of a diversified mesofauna in Raphia palm groves, dominated by rodents. Mapping gave evidence of a close relationship between Raphia palm groves and water points. In addition, Raphia provides firewood and wine. Good maintenance (N=55; 91.67%) and regeneration (N=45; 75.00%) are the main strategies implemented by the respondents to preserve their Raphia palm groves. For a long-term preservation, respondents proposed: sensitization (N=14; 23.33%), re-planting (N=20; 33.33%), pasting of warning and use of fetishes (N=16; 26.67%).

Conclusion: The current state of Raphia palm groves in Fotouni is not favourable to wetland conservation. The Ministry of Environment, Nature Protection and Sustainable Development should provide a national inventory of Raphia coverage while the local population should adopt healthy behaviours towards the exploitation of Raphia.

Open Access Review Article

Socio-Cultural, Economic and Environmental Impacts of Ecotourism in Birilarosa Protected Landscape and Seascape (BLPLS)

Myrna Nicol Ogoc

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 27-37
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2021/v15i330229

Ecotourism is a melting pot of cultures and people. It is said that national and local pride can be created through the cultural appreciation of ecotourists, and local knowledge and the standard of living can be enhanced. The folklore or story about “Berbenota” the enchanted lady of Rock Formations have resulted to the protection and conservation who is believed to be the protector of the area. These activities provide special opportunities to understand the history and traditions of the community and to witness their cultural practices and daily living, including traditional rituals, rites and dances. For the positive side of ecotourism, it can generate environmental rehabilitation and natural or local tourism development by promoting environmental protection and the improvement of a specific tourist destination. The greatest contribution of ecotourism is the protection of biodiversity and a sustainable development plan is necessary. In terms of the negative side, when ecotourism is improperly managed, environmental degradation follows. These invasions often include deforestation, disruption of ecological lifestyle systems and various styles of pollutants, all of which make a contribution to environmental degradation. It is important to note that majority of the respondents were farmers which at the same time fishermen. It is also interesting that many of the employed people were also patronizing the local tourist’s destination. It seems that common people were benefitted so much of the booming local ecotourism industry in the BLPLS areas as represented by the various stakeholders and key players in the tourism industry. At least One hundred respondents were interviewed using the systematic sampling approach. The results indicate that both the mainland and island communities benefits ecotourism in various ways but not to their level of satisfaction. Members of the community are allowed access to resources such as fish, food crops, firewood and water. Additionally, a range of job opportunities includes tour guiding; rendering service mobility vehicles for the tourists, and accommodations. Another key tourism related benefits include interaction with the tourists, sale of local crafts, fish processing, food vending and opportunities to profile cultural activities. However, there remains the need to improve beneficiation given the high poverty and unemployment rates in the locality.