Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluating the Nitrate to Phosphate Ratio and Other Physicochemical Characteristics of Different Water Sources in Yeghe Community, Rivers State, Nigeria

S. A. Wemedo, T. Sampson, B. Dick

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2021/v15i130217

Water quality determination has become essential in characterising the nature of water used by humans for various purposes. This study was therefore carried out to assess the nitrate to phosphate ratio and other physical and chemical parameters influencing the quality of water used for domestic purposes in Yeghe Community, Rivers State, Nigeria. Water samples (from 3 boreholes, 3 river points and 3 wells) were collected randomly for each study period, and subjected to standard laboratory procedures to analyse for parameters such as temperature, pH, nitrate nitrogen, phosphate, total dissolved solid (TDS), dissolved oxygen (DO) and electrical conductivity, using standard procedures. Nutrient limitation in the water sources was evaluated based on critical ratios produced by Redfield, using nitrate and phosphate as limiting nutrients. The nitrate to phosphate ratios indicated that there were more of phosphate limitations in the samples, as only two of the samples showed nitrate limitation, with the well water samples showing no nitrate limitation.  The study also showed that all the physico-chemical parameters were within the WHO limits, except for pH that had values below the regulatory standard. Statistical evaluation of the data showed a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the physicochemical parameters of the different water sources (river, tap and well), except for temperature that recorded no significant difference (p > 0.05). This novel study on physicochemical water quality determinants has provided baseline and reference data set for monitoring the pollution status of the different water sources of this rural community. Local health authorities should however regulate anthropogenic activities around these water sources to ensure the availability of safe for use water sources in this locality.    

Open Access Original Research Article

Forest Management Plan for Implementation of a Pilot REDD+ Project for Masito Community Forest Reserve, Kigoma, Tanzania for 2012-2017: General Description

Emmanuel F. Nzunda

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 10-20
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2021/v15i130218

A forest management plan is a document that guides management of a formally managed forest. The general description is a component of a forest management plan, which describes the target forest and the focal landscape in socioeconomic and ecological terms. This paper gives a general description as part of a forest management plan for implementation of a pilot REDD+ project for Masito Community Forest Reserve, Kigoma, Tanzania for 2012-2017. The methodology used to obtain the data and information for the description was literature review. The general description is given under six main sections, namely: (1) legal status, ownership and administration; (2) location, size and boundaries; (3) physical features; (4) biological aspects; (5) buffer zones and corridors, and; (6) socio-economic aspects of adjacent communities. The forest was not yet gazetted. The vegetation type was predominantly miombo woodlands. The main land use of the forest adjacent communities was agriculture. The general description formed the basis for development of the other components of the management plan.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Climate Change Awareness in the Kakamega-Nandi Forest Complex in the Western Region

Wabusya Moses Wetiba, Mugatsia Tsingalia, Njira Njira Pili, Vincent Kakembo

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 33-48
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2021/v15i130220

Aims: This study assessed the level of climate change awareness among the forest-adjacent communities in the Kakamega-Nandi forest ecosystem complex. Four locations were chosen for the study, Buyangu and Isecheno in the Kakamega forest, Kaptumo in Nandi South and Kipsamoite in Nandi North forest ecosystems.

Study Design: A cross-sectional survey design was used to collect data from primary sources. Structured questionnaires were administered to the residents aged 25years and older within the study area.

Place and Duration of Study: The Kakamega, north and south Nandi forest ecosystems in western Kenya between June -December 2019.

Methodology: A total of 280 questionnaires were randomly administered to the forest-adjacent respondents with, Kakamega forest 163 respondents, South Nandi forest 60, while North Nandi had 57respondents. A total of 217 questionnaires were filled and returned and the information wherein used in data analysis. Focused Group Discussion and key informants were used to supplement data collects by the questionnaires.

Results: Majority of the residents (54%) were less concerned about climate change. In addition, 85% of the respondents had very little knowledge on coping and adapting to the adverse impacts of climate change. Some 40 % and 45% of the respondents got information about climate through televisions and radios, respectively. Further analysis of the results revealed that climate change was responsible for fourteen key impacts. These included an increase in rainfall, prolonged drought, decrease in the quality and quantity of fresh water, decrease in food security, an increase in temperature, a decrease in agricultural resources, an increase in sickness and disease, a decrease in quality of life, flooding, decrease in forest cover, loss of homes, reduction in biodiversity, and rise in storm surge. A Chi test revealed a significant relationship between forest cover decline and changes in rainfall patterns (X2 = 111.86, df =12, p<0.001), increasing temperature (X2 = 80.492, df =12, p<0.001);, drought( (X2 = 204.84, df =16, p<0.001) and storm surges (X2 = 74.34, df =8, p<0.001)]. The respondents' level of education was significantly different from their level of climate change awareness (X2=44.88, df=4, p<0.001).

Conclusion: Forest-adjacent communities in the Kakamega-Nandi forest ecosystem complex are vulnerable to climate change as a result of insufficient knowledge about climate change and its impacts. The Kakamega-Nandi forest ecosystem is already experiencing climate change effects such as erratic rainfall and increasing food insecurity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Participatory Land Use Planning Policy Implementation in Ulanga District, Tanzania: Assessment of Zones Sufficiency

Margaret N. Naiposha, Emmanuel F. Nzunda, Japhet J. Kashaigili

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 49-62
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2021/v15i130221

Land use plans have been considered as a solution to land use problems and hence enhance ecological, economic and social sustainability of land use. Appropriateness of land use plans and hence its potential for adherence may rely on sufficiency of zones allocated for different land uses. This study was designed to empirically identify land use implementation problems and suggest solutions relevant to the land users, the government, planners and other stakeholders. Specifically, the study assesses: (1) The extent to which the land use zones cover all zones needed by the stakeholders and; (2) Reasons for levels of sufficiency of the allocated land use zones. Data were collected through household survey of 120 respondents from two villages, key informants, focus group discussions and field observation survey while secondary data were collected through review of guidelines for land use planning, village land use plans, district land use framework, books and journals. Information used to assess sufficiency of land use zones used in Village Land Use Plans (VLUP) from household survey and village records were descriptively analysed. The implementation of village land use plans was not done as expected. Land use zones were insufficient in terms of the allocated size and needs within the zones for current and future situation. Overall the insufficiency of the land use zones was reported by 90% of the respondents. For individual land use zones the insufficiency was reported by the following percentages of the respondents: 95.0% for residential zone, 89.2% for agriculture zone, 96.7 for grazing zone, 25.2 for forest zone, 0% for wildlife management area, 0% for wildlife corridor and 0% for wetland. The reasons for insufficiency of the land use zones were increasing population, overstocking, and lack of infrastructure necessary within specific zones. Other factors included inadequate consideration for uncertainties in population projection standard, unclear zoning regulation and discrepancy in population data. Based on the findings and conclusions, this study makes the following recommendations. First, the National Land Use Planning Commission should devise mechanisms to ensure that all the six steps of land use planning are completed towards implementable land use plans. Secondly, the national land use planning commission should review zoning standards to sufficiently allocate the land use zones. The population projections used for future allocation of land had influence on the sufficiency of the zones where the rate of population increase is assumed to be fixed throughout the ten years implementation period without consideration of uncertainties. It is worth incorporating GIS to establish trend of land use and forecast future land use to sufficiently allocate land during the 10 years lifespan of the VLUP. Thirdly, the national land use planning commission need to validate spatial data and population data at village level to avoid discrepancies which affect implementation of the village land use plans.

Open Access Review Article

Terrestrial Carbon Stock Potential in Selected Forest in Bhutan, India and Nepal

Kezang Choden, Bhagat Suberi, Purna Chettri

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 21-32
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2021/v15i130219

Forests are natural carbon reservoirs that play an important role in the global carbon cycle for storing large quantities of carbon in vegetation and soils. Carbon stored in pool helps in mitigating climate change by carbon sequestration. The vulnerable countries to changing climate such as Bhutan, Nepal, and India require a full understanding of carbon dynamics as well as baseline data on carbon stock potential to mitigate anticipated risks and vulnerabilities (RVs) through climate change. The scope of such RVs are trans boundary in nature, however, the comparative studies at regional scale are still scanty. Therefore, the aim of this review is to assess the carbon stock potentials of selected forest types in the eastern Himalayan area, with an emphasis on Bhutan, India, and Nepal. This review paper is based on published articles, information from websites and considerable data from National forestry reports of India and Bhutan; emphasizing on aboveground biomass and soil organic carbon stock.

The review showed that carbon stock potential is highly dependent on stand density, above-ground biomass, species richness and forest types. The sub-tropical forest was found to have larger carbon capacity and sequestration potential. SOC concentration and tree biomass stocks were significantly higher at the high altitude where there is less human disturbance. In general, forest coverage has increased compare to previous year in Bhutan, India and Nepal which ultimately leads to higher carbon stock potential. It is mainly due to strong policies and different strategies for conservation of forest management have reduced mass destruction despite a growing population. Despite the rules, deforestation continues to occur at various scales. However, it can be stated that the government and citizens are working hard to increase carbon stock potential, mostly through afforestation and community forest creation. In addition, it is recommended to practice sustainable forest management, regulated and planned cutting of trees and proper forest products utilization.