Open Access Original Research Article

The Indian Antelope Nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus) Appropriate Contender for Domestication could add in Human Society

Suday Prasad, Ravindra Kumar Sohane, Anil Jha, Reyaz Ahmad

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2021/v14i430211

The domestication of animals was part of a major transformation in the way of life of an increasing number of human societies with deep social and spiritual changes. In the present study, we report about utility of Nilgai and the values of its products and how it can add variety in our diet. Domestication of Nilgai may prove as an outstanding diet (veal and juveniles) for human and domesticated carnivores it may be the most important achievements that man-made in his cultural history. It is very useful and has many kinds of beneficial mutualism with man exists. We also prerequisite to reconnoiter biological functions, importance, and distinctiveness of products viz milk, meat, leather and body parts such as skin, teeth, nail and other product in addition to transportation and export, because of their size and powerful appearance. The meat of Nilgai is said to be lighter and milder flavored than that of blackbuck meat. A domesticated animal such as livestock plays a vital role in diversified farming systems because food and recycling of nutrients through the farm are well proven. Nilgai appears to have different color which occurs during the developmental stage, like a fawn, juveniles and adults. Few Nilgai showed some docility behavior in nature subsequently that sighs of taming towards domestication. Nilgai may prove a higher status than other domestic animals when it comes to success in domestication. The Nilgai dwelling near the human habitation in proximity to a close distance in anthropogenic and share with its habitat and graze food and fodders with domestic herbivore mammals like goat, buffalos’ and cow in the periphery of the village’s areas. The domestication of Nilgai corresponds to a pivotal change in history not only of humanity but also of the biosphere.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Weed Managements and Anthropogenic Stress on Quantitative Attributes of Plant Community Composition in Gopegarh Ecopark, Paschim Medinipur, West Bengal, India

Somdatta Ghosh, Ritusmita Maity, Swagata Rana, Mamoni Kamilya, Surojit Patra, Debashis Kuila

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 11-25
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2021/v14i430213

Eco-parks are generally set up worldwide for serving both recreational and conservation purposes of local biodiversity through limited maintenance. Gopegarh Eco Park was set by the Forest Department, Government of West Bengal in highlands bank of Kangsabati  Kansai) river with a heritage ‘Garh’ area with remnants of Khan Raja’s establishment in Midnapore, West Bengal. This park was a place to study for its rich resources of indigenous vegetation, insects and birds for students and researchers. Increased development for amusements including picnic shades and human accessibility, intense weeding and mud ovens are set up. This study to measure quantitative characteristics of plant communities by quardrat method in low, moderate and severely disturbed zones revealed gradual decrease in indigenous flora with time; specially, herbaceous vegetation. The vegetation is gradually turning towards a monodominant tree community of Acacia auriculiformis, in low and moderate disturbed sites and Anacardium occidentale in severely disturbed sites; both planted earlier. Species frequency, diversity and density are decreasing with stress. The frequent cutting and weeding is affecting intensely on the ecosystem; decreasing soil moisture, organic carbon and changes in pH. This practice may affect propagule formation, dispersal and establishment of herbs, shrub and tree species. The park may gradually lose the indigenous flora and the flora dependant fauna and its utility as in situ sustainable maintenance of biodiversity and a resource place for practical study by students and researchers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Interspecific-Competition Strongly Constrains Species-Richness and Species-Abundance Evenness in a Tropical Marine Molluscan Community Inhabiting Caulerpa Beds, as Compared to Coral-Reefs

Jean Béguinot

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 26-46
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2021/v14i430214

Increasing species-richness at the local scale (within species communities) is accommodated, first, by the diversification of the niches respectively associated to species. Yet, in case of excessive supply in colonizing species issued from the regional pool, the corresponding increase in the number of solicited niches may lead to some “niche-overcrowding” resulting in significant niche-overlaps. Then, second, strong interspecific competition for shared resource can arise, triggered by the density in individuals among those species co-occurring at niche-overlaps. Accordingly, the accommodation of species-richness within a local community involves a balance between (i) the positive contribution of improved niche-diversification and (ii) the negative consequence of induced interspecific-competition at increasing niche-overlaps once the number of colonizing species becomes too large. This balance can strongly differ according to the local ecological conditions, since the latter are expected to strongly influence the range of “overcrowding-free” diversification of niches. So that, concretely, each community requires a specific analysis, in order to disentangle and quantify the respective contributions of the niche-diversification and the intensity of interspecific-competition to this balance. And, in particular, their respective roles upon both the species-richness and the degree of unevenness of species abundance within community. Beyond its speculative interest, this deeper understanding of the process involved in the hierarchic-like organization of species within community also answers more practical concerns, in particular the stability of species-richness, partly dependent on the intensity of interspecific-competition.

In this perspective, we quantify and compare how species-richness accommodation proceeds in two major taxonomic groups, Bivalves and Gastropods respectively, both belonging to a same molluscan community inhabiting Caulerpa beds, in the intertidal-zone of Siquijor Island (Philippines). Then, after having compared these two different taxonomic groups, the influence of environmental conditions on species-richness accommodation is addressed, showing that “Caulerpa-beds” habitat features far-less rewarding to Gastropods communities than can be the classical “coral-reef” habitat.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study of COD Removal Efficacy from Pharmaceutical Wastewater by Areca Nut Husk Produced and Commercially Available Activated Carbons

Sharmin Akter, Ferdousi Sultana, Md. Rakibul Kabir, Partha Pratim Brahma, Atkeeya Tasneem, Nandita Sarker, Mst. Mahmoda Akter, Md. Mahbub Kabir, Md. Khabir Uddin

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 47-56
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2021/v14i430215

Pharmaceutical industries in Bangladesh are considered as one major industrial as well as environmental pollution problems which discharge a significant amount of organic contaminants in the environment hence require advanced treatment technologies to decontaminate pharmaceutical wastewater. In the present investigation, areca nut husk treated activated carbon (ANHC) was used as an adsorbent to remove chemical oxygen demand (COD) from pharmaceutical effluent as well as a comparative adsorption efficiency with commercial activated carbon (CAC) was performed.  The batch experiments were carried out in a laboratory scale. The materials also evaluated for different adsorbent dosages and contact times. The experiment revealed a removal percentage up to 70% for ANHC and 90% for CAC for 3g of adsorbents in 180 min. The adsorption processes were satisfactorily described by pseudo-second-order (PSO) kinetic model which shows a better fitting with the maximum regression coefficient for both adsorbents. The results show that Langmuir model best described the experimental data with a highest correlation coefficient (R2=0.9856 for ANHC and 0.9993 for CAC) compared to Freundlich model and the experimental data showed asorption capacity of 36.549 and 64.935 mg/g for ANHC and CAC, correspondingly. According to the adsorption studies, the results revealed that COD adsorption process followed by the monolayer chemisorption mechanisms. The results revealed that ANHC adsorbent is potentially low cost and environmental friendly adsorbent for the removal of organic matter from pharmaceutical effluent.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Salt Harvesting on Ground Water Quality in Gongoni Ward, Kilifi County, Kenya

Ali Gakweli, Peter Gikuma-Njuru, Bonface Ombasa Manono

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 57-65
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2021/v14i430216

Aims: To determine the effects of salt harvesting on ground water quality in Gongoni ward, Kilifi County.

Study Design: The study design was purposive where sampling points were deliberately chosen.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in Gongoni ward and its environs in Kilifi County from May 2015 to July 2015.

Methodology: Sixteen sampling points were selected within the study area and sampling was done twice between May and July 2015. The water samples collected were analyzed for sodium (Na+), Chlorides (Cl-), Fluorides, (F-) Calcium (Ca2+), alkalinity, acidity (pH), E. coli, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and Salinity as NaCl in the Government Chemist laboratories in Mombasa. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS and Microsoft Office Excel.

Results: The ground water sources in Gongoni ward registered high levels of key parameters (TDS, Salinity, Chloride, and Sodium) than the adjacent areas of Mambrui, Ngomeni and selected secondary data from Mombasa County wells where no salt harvesting occurs. Gongoni water sources had a mean TDS of 1969.00mg/L and the adjacent area shad TDS of 1050.00 mg/L. The level of E. coli and total coliform were above the Kenyan and WHO permissible limit of 0 MPN/100ml for treated water and 10 MPN/100mls for untreated water.

Conclusion: Despite the elevated concentration levels of chemical parameters from Gongoni ward water sources, the differences are not statistically significant when compared to the adjacent areas of Mambrui and Ngomeni.

Recommendations: The water from sources with high levels of TDS and salinity should be pre-treated to make the water more suitable for human use. Those with high coliform and E. coli bacteria should be regularly treated using the appropriate disinfection methods. It is recommended that all projects on salt harvesting should be subjected to an Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) before implementation as provided by the Kenya Environmental Management and Coordination Act of 1999.