Open Access Short Research Article

Ground Water Contamination: Effects and Remedies

J. M. Hilili, D. I. Onuora, R. U. Hilili, Arowosegbe Folusho Annah, Y. A. Onmonya, M. H. Hilili

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 39-58
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2021/v14i130196

Studies on “ground water contamination : effects and remedies” have been conducted, in the light of these, field work studies in Obudu and Obanliku local Government Areas of Cross River State, South Eastern Nigeria, was conducted. Fifteen (15) locations of water for drinking and other domestic uses were carefully studied in the area, with their surface to water depth values recorded. Five(5) of the locations were at surface saturated water depressions(SWD), seven(7) were Hand dug wells(well), while three(3) were bore holes(BH). The physiochemical composition data compared with world Health Organization (WHO) standard shows that, the bore water was safer for drinking than the hand dug wells and surface water in saturated water depressions. Coliform count unite per 100ml of water, were detected in most of the locations in the saturated water depressions and hand dug wells, showing evidence of biogenic interference with the water. Coliform count unite per 100ml of water was not detected in any of the three bore holes, probably due to their depth distance from Biogenic activities. Phosphate and Nitrate levels were significantly above WHO standard in saturated water depressions and Hand dug wells, probably due to erosional and leaching actions of inorganic fertilizers from farm lands and waste from near dump site. It is important to note that most water borne diseases are as a result of ground water communication with contaminant, such as heavy metals, leachate from dump sites, pollutants from inorganic fertilizers, pith toilets   sea water intrusion etc., most boreholes are contaminated by these processes. This is one of the reasons for the increase in the rate of cancer in most developing countries. Hence, heavy metals are known to be carcinogenic to the human cells, and also can cause mutation. The remedies to these include:

  • The process of exploiting and storing ground water should be  done with all  safety  precautions, such as making sure  biochemical parameters  in water are in line with WHO standard
  • Thorough biochemical analysis and test for the presence of heavy metal contamination and coliform count and other contaminants should be done on ground water, before use for domestic and industrial purposes.
  • Surface depth measurement of recharge zones in boreholes should be carried out to ensure that borehole water is from confined aquifers that are safe for domestic and industrial uses.
  • Proper waste disposing system such as engineered toilet pits, engineered dump sites and effective management of electronic waste should be monitored and implemented
  • Where the purity of the water is not satisfactory, such water should be properly treated before used for drinking and other domestic purposes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Philately’s Implications in Ecological Education Via Romanian Thematic Joint Issues (III) - Regarding the 1st Colaboration with WWF

Bogdan-Vasile Cioruța, Alexandru Leonard Pop

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-23
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2021/v14i130194

Continuing the extensive project to promote protected natural heritage and biodiversity, we decided, this time, to emphasize the collaboration of the Romanian postal administration with the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) and its purely philatelic interpretations, introducing in scientific circulation the idea of thematic philately for endangered species protection. In this sense, the first topic addressed is the first issue of Romanian postage stamps dedicated exclusively to protected animals in Romania, published in early 1977. From that date until now, at the end of 2020, Romanian philately has been enriched, on quite rare occasions (3-4 in number), with the most interesting and original issues at the same time. As mentioned, the purpose of this paper is to make known to the public and to widely promote the term of protection and sustainable management of endangered species, as an alarm signal on the deplorable condition in which various species of fish, birds or even mammals are treated. For some of these species not to disappear, it was decided to pass them under the protection of the law, where the WWF also has a special contribution through its initiatives. The results of the research undertaken underline the mass character of thematic philately and the fundamental role - as an ambassador of knowledge promotion - that it has played over time. Regarding the philatelic issues that address this thematic, we can say that they successfully highlight the implications of WWF along with those of the Romanian postal administration in promoting the natural capital to be protected, but especially the impressive work of collectors of philatelic effects, as well as of those who used the postal service.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ecophysiological and Anthropogenic Determinants of Phytoplankton Community Structure in Streams Receiving Effluents from the Douala-Bassa Industrial Zone

Beatrice Ambo Fonge, Pascal Tabi Tabot, Djouego Sob Charleine, Fru Queenzabel Mambo, Lucienne Human

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 24-38
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2021/v14i130195

Physicochemical parameters and plankton community structure of streams flowing through the Douala-Bassa Industrial zone were assessed in seven different sites. Anthropogenic activities, water accessibility and the different industries located along the watercourse were considered in selecting the sites. Four sets of water samples were collected from each site and analysed for phytoplankton community structure, nutrient, Chl a and bacteria. Physicochemical parameters were measured insitu using a multi parameter equipment (HANNA 8289). Water temperature ranged from 25.27 - 26.840 C. The pH of the water samples ranged from 6.33 – 7.50 while Turbidity ranging from zero - 1000 NTU. The Electrical Conductivity was 495.33 - 261.67 µS/cm and Dissolved Oxygen was zero - 1.11 ppm. Chlorophyll a concentration ranged from 1.2 – 48.96µg/l. Total Suspended Solids ranged from 0.15 – 0.88. Phosphate and ammonium concentrations ranged from 1.22 – 12.81µM and 4.29 – 136.48 µM respectively nitrates concentration was 1.15 – 217.09 µM. The number of phytoplankton species varied between the sites with a total of 68 species belonging to 11 Divisions. The Bacillariophytas were the most abundant with 27 species. The Chlorophyta followed with 12 species. The most dominant phytoplankton species were Microcystis sp, Pinnularia gibba and Nitzschia palea. Site 7 was the most diverse site with 70 species. High concentrations of nutrients and the presence of eutrophic species such as the Bacillariophytas and Microcystis suggests pollution and a need to monitor activities carried out along the water course with respect to quantity and quality of wastewater discharged into the stream. The ecosystem was in a eutrophic state with variations in the water quality parameters. This could be attributed to possible untreated effluents incorporated in the ecosystem. It can be concluded from the study that phytoplankton dynamics in the Douala-Bassa Industrial Zone are directly related to ecophysiological and anthropogenic drivers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Public Perception of Climate Change Impact on Human Health in Trans Amadi Area of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

H. O. Stanley, P. T. Bestmann, C. J. Ugboma

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 59-65
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2021/v14i130197

This study examined the public perception of climate change impact on human health risks in Trans Amadi area of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. An in-depth questionnaire on public perception of climate change and possible implications on human health was administered to participants within Trans Amadi area of Port Harcourt and their corresponding responses were analyzed and discussed. Demography of respondents showed 44% are male while 56% are females. On the educational level of respondents, the survey showed that 3% had just primary school education, 41% had up to secondary school education, 52% had acquired tertiary education and just 2% had non-formal education or are uneducated. Survey on respondents understanding and perception on climate change showed 85% - 93% response on awareness; 77% completely agreed that climate change poses a threat for the people around the world and that climate change is caused by human activities and the global temperature has changed compared to previous decades; 59% of the respondents somewhat agreed that the temperature within Trans Amadi region has changed drastically while 44% believes that climate change is only because of the pollution from industries within the area. A preponderance of the respondents (78%) strongly believed that climate change impacts most on vector borne diseases / infectious disease; 75% strongly believed that it causes shortage in food supply, 57% strongly believed it causes air pollutants while 45% strongly believed it impacts heavily on storm and flooding. There was a generally high awareness of the causes and effects of climate change among the respondents. Therefore compliance to reduce emission of gases that lead to global warming should be enforced in all areas and sectors of the economy and green approaches should be adopted in all that we do as humans.

Open Access Original Research Article

Philately’s Implications in Ecological Education via Romanian Thematic Joint Issues (IV)- Regarding the 2nd Collaboration with WWF

Bogdan-Vasile Cioruța, Alexandru Leonard Pop, Mirela Coman

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 66-81
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2021/v14i130198

The project to promote the protected natural heritage and biodiversity continues with the 2nd collaboration of the Romanian postal administration with the World Wildlife Fund. Introducing in the scientific circulation the idea of thematic philately, for the protection of endangered species, this time we focused on the issue published in 1984. This is suggestively entitled “Animals protected in the Romanian reservations”. It should be mentioned that, at the end of 1984, the national thematic philately was enriched, with a series of postage stamps promoting pelicans. The philatelic issue comes to the public to confirm that in Romania (more exactly in Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve) there is the largest colony of common pelicans in Europe. The research emphasizes the mass character of thematic philately and its role as a cultural ambassador. The 1984 philatelic issue, underlines the implications of WWF, along with those of the Romanian postal administration, in promoting the natural capital to be protected. The issue itself has many philatelic effects (especially maximum postcards), both those made privately and officially, which we insisted. We wanted to show that such philatelic materials, made in collaboration with prestigious entities, are more than welcome in sounding the alarm about habitat alteration. Also, they can be the basis of various conservation strategies in terms of adequate information among tourists.