Open Access Original Research Article

Protective Effect of Vitamin E on Potassium Dichromate-induced Haematoxicity and Oxidative Stress in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

O. I. Azeez, S. F. Braimah

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 18-31
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2020/v13i230177

Effect of potassium dichromate was studied experimentally in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) with and without vitamin E in induced haematoxicity and oxidative stress. Blood samples were collected for haematology and plasma biochemical parameters while gills, liver and kidney samples were collected for evaluation of markers of oxidative stress. Exposure to potassium dichromate led to a significant decrease in PCV, RBC, haemoglobin concentration, MCV, MCH and total WBC when compared with the unexposed     control and those fed with vitamin E-supplemented feed. Nephrotoxicity was also observed as evidenced by increases in plasma creatinine levels. Exposure to potassium dichromate also led to increased oxidative stress as the concentrations of antioxidant endogenous enzymes - GPx, GST and GSH were depleted while potentiating lipid peroxidation and hydroxyl radical generation. The changes in the haematological, biochemical and antioxidant parameters were restored in the fish fed with vitamin E-supplemented feed. The study showed exposure to potassium dichromate to be toxic to African catfish, causing anaemia and kidney damage with free radical generation and depletion of GSH and other antioxidant defence system but the toxic effect can be minimised along with weight gain in fish supplemented by vitamin – E in aquaculture.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Arsenic (As) and Iron (Fe) Concentration in Ground Water and Associated Health Risk by Arsenic Contamination in Singair Upazila, Manikganj District, Bangladesh

Atkeeya Tasneem, Tanvir Ahmed, Md. Khabir Uddin

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 32-41
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2020/v13i230178

Contamination of drinking water by Arsenic (As) & Iron (Fe) is nowadays appeared as a big concern for public health and environment as well. Immoderate and continued revelation of inorganic arsenic along with drinking water is triggering arsenicosis. High Fe and As concentration found in the study area is also appeared as very challenging to those people who are consuming the water on regular basis and they may confront to a high health risk. This study is conducted to determine the concentration of Fe and As in ground tube-well containing possible health risk in Bangladesh which examines the ground water As and Fe scenario of Singair Upazila, Manikganj district. Total 40 samples were collected from the study area. As and Fe were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The study found As concentration ranged from 0.0011 to 0.0858 mg/L with the mean concentration as 0.04186 mg/L. Concentration of Fe was found 0.175 to 13.865 mg/L with the mean concentration as 3.600 mg/L whereas WHO standard level is 0.01 mg/L for As and 0.3 mg/l for Fe. It was also noticed that As and Fe concentration in shallow tube-well was relatively high than that in deep tube-well and a strong correlation between As and Fe was marked in the ground water. Therefore, to cope with this challenge, people should look for other sources or relocate the tube-well or treat the water for drinking and other everyday purposes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Municipal Wastewater Treatment Using a Packed Bio-tower Approach

Klaus Doelle, Qian Wang

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 42-50
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2020/v13i230179

The study tested a designed and built pilot scale packed bio-tower system under continuous operation using pre-clarified municipal wastewater. Performance was evaluated by measuring the removal of chemical oxygen demand and nitrogen ammonia.

The pilot scale packed bio-tower system had a diameter of 1209 mm (4 ft.) and a height of 3,962 mm (13 ft.) and contained Bentwood CF-1900 bacteria growth media with a surface area of 6,028.80 ft² (560.09 m²). The municipal residential sewage was fed into a 1,481 l (375 gal.) recirculation reservoir at a temperature of 15°C (59.0°F) and a flow rate between 7,571 l/d (2000 gal/d) and 90,850 l/d (24,000 gal/d) and recirculated through the bio-tower with a fixed recirculation rate of 75.7 l/min (20 gal/min).

The influent COD value reduction achieved is between 63.4% and 84.8%, whereas the COD influent value varied between 87 mg/l and 140 mg/l. The influent NH3-N reduction achieved was between 99.8% and 91.8% whereas the influent NH3-N value was between 28.8 mg/l and 18.6 mg/l  at a flow rate between 7571 l/d (2000 gal/d) and 90,850 l/d (24,000 gal/d).

Open Access Original Research Article

Residents’ Dependency on Forest Resources: A Case Study on Ratargul Freshwater Swamp Forest of Bangladesh

Sanjoy Das, Shourav Dutta, Pinaki Chowdhury, Tusher Kumer Ray, Kishwar Jahan Chowdhury, Narayan Saha

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 51-64
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2020/v13i230180

The only freshwater swamp forest of Bangladesh namely Ratargul Freshwater Swamp Forest (RFWSF) has a great contribution to the livelihoods of the surrounding local communities. Local communities or residents of the area depend heavily on this biodiversity-rich swamp forest for income, employment, fuelwood, and non-wood forest resources. An exploratory study was carried out in the swamp forest to explore the availability and consumption pattern of various forest resources, and dependency levels of residents on the RFWSF. Data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire from 301 respondents (randomly selected from the residents) of the surrounding nine villages. The study revealed that respondents were dependent largely on the RFWSF for fuelwood, bamboo, cane, murta, ornamental resource, and other raw materials for cottage industries. Among the respondents 27% were involved in the harvesting of fish resources, followed by fuelwood (23%), grass (11%), and fodder (6%) collection. Bamboo was the main source of fuel for 41 % of the respondents and 40% depended on twigs and branches of trees. The findings of the study revealed that residents were highly dependent on the non-wood forest resources of the RFWSF for their livelihoods. Besides, a substantial amount of wood resources was consumed by the residents as fuelwood. Excessive unscientific exploitation of the forest resources disturbed the ecological functions and threatened the wildlife habitats of the RFWSF tremendously. The study recommended raising awareness and capacity building among the forest-dependent residents, proper implementations of forest law, and sustainable management could be the effective pathway for the upliftment of the resident’s condition with ecological rehabilitation in the RFWSF.

Open Access Review Article

The Freshwater Mollusk Dreissena polymorpha (Zebra Mussel) - A Review: Living, Prospects and Jeopardies

Klaus Dölle, David E. Kurzmann

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2020/v13i230176

This review paper aims to address the topic of the living, prospects as well as jeopardies of the invasive Zebra Mussel. Broad literature reviews have been taken place to gather as many facts on this species as possible to summon all the most significant information up in one paper to be available for everyone. To get a better understanding of freshwater mussels in general, a short review of freshwater mussel diversity in America has been written also. The review paper focuses especially on living, prospects, and jeopardies in North America. The review revealed, freshwater mussels to be of practical importance and of great primeness for scientific research due to their unique life cycle. Especially the freshwater mollusk Dreissena polymorpha (Dreissenidae), colloquial known as the zebra mussel draws interest due to the mollusks’ invasive character and their tremendous filtering capacity. Once originated from the Ponto-Caspian region and currently present in 33 European Countries and 33 states of North America the freshwater bivalve draws interest all over the world. Their larval stage allows broad invasions of aquatic systems. Even though they can both harm their habitat as well as other organisms living in it, Dreissena polymorpha enormous filtering capacity can be utilized effectively if managed right. However, a lack of natural enemies and environmentally friendly pesticides makes control of Dreissena polymorpha in open water impossible.