Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of Biochar Produced from Different Feed Stocks

Dereje Dejene, Eyob Tilahun

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2020/v12i130147

Imprudently disposed and burning of organic wastes have been causing environmental pollution and greenhouse gas emission. The objective of this study was to characterize the biochar produced from different agricultural wastes to explore its potential use as organic soil amendments. The feedstock derived from each of Eucalyptus globules (EG), Acacia decarance (AD), farm yard manure (FYM) and rice straw (RS) were collected and biochar was produced by slow pyrolysis at 300oC in the furnace. The determination of pH, carbon, phosphorus, cation exchange capacity, electrical conductivity and exchangeable basic cations of individual biochar was performed and statistical analyses carried out to compare the means values obtained. Higher carbon content was observed in biochar produced from AD (65.00%) compared with that of biochar produced from other feedstock types included in this study. pH value of Bbiochar produced from EG and RS were moderately acidic (pH 5.94) and neutral (pH 6.6), respectively, whereas biochar produced from AD (pH 8.07 and FYM (pH 8.17) revealed moderately alkaline pH level. High and low EC values were recorded in biochar produced from FYM (4.70 DS m-1) and the low value from EG (0.68 DS m-1), respectively. The maximum concentration of exchangeable magnesium (20.95%), potassium (16.40%) and sodium (1.77%), EC and phosphorous (2288.75 ppm) were testimony in biochar produced from FYM is potential to prove phosphorus fertilizer requirement of a crop but calcium (39.50%) was from biochar produced from AD. Higher CEC (129.75 cmolc kg-1) was detected in biochar produced from EG followed by biochar produced from RS (127.5 cmolc kg-1), AD (117 cmolc kg-1) and FYM (87.25 cmolc kg-1). Generally, the current finding revealed that biochar from different feedstock’s had different chemical properties, so this difference could contribute for soil fertility improvement as the result agricultural wastes is managed without pollution. But, the current work was limited to the characterization of biochar. So, more detailed investigation on the rate and reclaiming the power of the biochar and other issues should be investigated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Physicochemical and Microbiological Characteristics of Water Samples of Okomu National Park, Edo State, Nigeria

A. O. Omonona, A. T. Adetuga, T. V. Solotan

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 7-17
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2020/v12i130148

Water is very crucial for the survival and maintenance of most living organisms. The quality of water available for plant, animal or human use cannot therefore be compromised. This study therefore examined the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of water samples in Okomu National Park, Edo State, Nigeria. Water samples were collected from four waterholes (three rivers and one stream) for two seasons (dry and wet) using grab sampling technique. These water samples were analysed for physicochemical [temperature, pH, total dissolved solid, electrical conductivity, total suspended solids, dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrate, chloride, phosphate, sulphate, biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD)] and microbiological (total coliform and fungal counts) analyses using standard methods. Data collected were subjected to descriptive statistics and T-test at α0.05 and compared with WHO permissible limits. The result showed that the mean COD (both seasons) and BOD (dry season) were above the comparable WHO permissible limit while there was no significant difference in the values of all the physicochemical parameters across the seasons of sampling. Salmonella / Shigella and Staphylococcus aureus were observed to be absent while the total coliform and fungi counts were observed to be higher than the WHO permissible limit for drinking water. The detection of Escherichia coli in the water samples (except Arakhuan stream) is an indication of faecal contamination either of animal or human origin. There was significant difference in total heterotrophic bacteria (t=-4.936) and total coliform counts (t=-2.417) in the waters sampled. Constant monitoring of the waterholes and intensified sensitization of the surrounding communities on ecosystem conservation is needed to protect the park’s ecosystems.

Open Access Original Research Article

Heavy Metal Bioaccumulation in Periwinkle (Tympanotonus fuscatus) and Tilapia Fish (Oreochromis niloticus) Samples Harvested from a Perturbed Tropical Creek in the Niger Delta, Nigeria

Nsikak O. Abiaobo, Idopiseabasi E. Asuquo, Enobong P. Akpabio

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 18-27
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2020/v12i130149

Different scientific studies with useful contributions in biomonitoring different environmental parameters and knowledge of their influences on aquatic ecosystem health and ultimately that of man have evolved through the years, however with scanty toxicological evidences. The present study was designed to investigate the concentrations of heavy metals in edible food of periwinkle and fish harvested from a perturbed creek in Niger Delta, Nigeria reported to constantly receive industrial effluent from two major oil and gas companies. Zn, Fe, Pb, Cu, Cr, Cd and Mn were assessed for 6 months from July – November, 2018. Higher concentrations of heavy metals were obtained with fish bio-accumulating more metals than periwinkle. The bio-availability sequence of metals in periwinkle was Fe>Cu>Mn>Cd>Zn>Cr>Pb and fish Fe>Cu> Zn>Mn>Cd>Cr>Pb. Mean values of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe and Zn in some months in periwinkle and fish were above WHO/FEPA regulatory limits while Pb and Mn were lower. The study has provided some useful information on metal accumulation in the icthyofauna of the creek and call for more toxicological study and biomonitoring of anthropogenic sources on the creek. Results showed the dominance of Cd, Cr, Cu and Fe over other metals in both animals in all months. Cu level was relatively stable throughout the study. Fish bio-accumulated more metals than periwinkle with report of higher concentrations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent Pollution Impact on Groundwater Quality and Agricultural Soils

S. A. Nta, I. J. Udom, S. O. Udo

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 28-36
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2020/v12i130151

A field study was conducted to investigate palm oil mill effluent (POME) pollution impact on ground water quality and agricultural soils. Raw POME and two water samples were also collected from the downstream and upstream locations away from the effluent discharge point using 1 litre capacity container. This was found less than 100 m from the mill. Soil samples from the POME dumpsite as well as non-POME soil were collected. Temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), salinity, total hardness, turbidity, sulphate, COD, BOD5, total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), dissolved oxygen, total alkalinity and percentage saturation for water samples were determined. pH, water holding capacity, total organic carbon (TOC), total organic matter (TOM), total nitrogen, available phosphorus, exchangeable cations: K, Na, Ca, Mg and cation exchange capacity for soil. Data obtained from the study were subjected to statistical analyses of variance (ANOVA). Significant variations exist in most of the physicochemical variables among the sampled parameters. Data for water samples were also compared with world health organization and Nigerian standard for drinking water quality. Most of these parameters indicated pollution but were below the standard limits for consumption. pH, EC, total hardness, turbidity, sulpahte, COD, BOD5, TDS, TSS, dissolved oxygen, total alkalinity, % saturation were all significant difference from each other. Soil pH, EC, TOC, total nitrogen, available P, TOM, Ca and exchangeable acidity were also all significant difference from each other. It is concluded that a strong move towards quality and environmental management through ecological improvement and cleaner technology approach within manufacturing industries in Nigeria is implemented.

Open Access Original Research Article

Geostatistical Modelling of Groundwater Quality at Rumuola Community, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Victor E. Amah, Fortune A. Agu

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 37-47
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2020/v12i130152

The groundwater quality of Rumuola community of Rivers State, Nigeria was investigated. This study was done to determine the pollution potential of a solid waste open dump in a borrow pit in the community. The leachate pollution index was calculated for the borrow pit at the centre of the community using weighted additive leachate pollution index. The result showed that the LPI value was 5.31 and has low pollution potential. It was discovered that the groundwater in the entire community was acidic with pH levels ranging from 3.6 to 4.2, which is below NSDWQ’s permissible range of 6.5-8.5. Nickel and arsenic also showed concentrations that were above permissible limits with nickel values averaging 0.033 mg/l which is slightly above the limit of 0.02 mg/l. Arsenic had concentrations that ranged from 0.16 to 1.57 mg/l which is above permissible limits of 0.01 mg/l. WQI was determined using weighted arithmetic water quality index analysis. As a result of the high concentrations of arsenic, the WQI values were very high with values ranging from 144 to 1367 and this shows that the water in the study area is unsuitable for drinking. In modelling the water quality index of Rumuola community, geostatistical methods were applied. Ordinary kriging, Empirical Bayesian kriging (EBK), inverse distance weighting (IDW) and cokriging interpolations methods were used   to produce surface maps showing the distribution of variables using ARCGIS software. The best interpolators were: EBK for pH, TDS, Sulphate and nitrate; Ordinary kriging for Nickel and Hardness; IDW for Iron and arsenic; Cokriging for WQI.