Open Access Original Research Article

Floristic Inventory of Invasive Alien Aquatic Plants Found in Some Congolese Rivers, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo

Henri Kunzi Mbale, Michael Tshibangu Mukendi, Gédéon Ngiala Bongo, Anthony Batoba Kikufi, Félicien Luyeye Lukoki

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2019/v11i430142

Aim: To identify invasive aquatic alien plant species found in the Pool Malebo and some rivers in Kinshasa city, their behavior as well as their socio-economic impacts.

Study Design: The study used a combination of purposive sampling and simple random sampling in order to select different sites where samples were collected.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in different rivers (Pool Malebo system (Kinkole, Kingabwa), and N'sele, Funa and Lukaya rivers) of Kinshasa city in Democratic Republic of the Congo. The Pool Malebo is located along the Congo River. This was conducted between March and October 2013.

Methodology: The collection was performed after a direct observation. The location of collection depended on sites, at Kingabwa and Kinkole, we collected invasive species in the middle of the Congo river and to achieve that, we used canoe. While at N’sele, Lukaya and Funa rivers, samples were collected at the edges. The collection took place in the morning between 7 and 11 am. Recorded species were classified either alien species or invasive alien species according to the status in the study region. The identification of collected species was carried out according to APG III. Seeing the way these species invade the environment and how they disturb the ecology of rivers, the physico-chemical characteristics of waters were measured between 7:00 and 11:00 am with the appropriate electronic probe for each parameter. For each parameter, the comparison between the sites was carried out using the ANOVA test with XLSTAT 2013 software.

Results: Out of 151 specimens collected, 35 species have been identified of which 19 species as alien were identified and 4 proved to be invasive alien species, namely: Eichhornia crassipes, Echinochloa pyramidalis, Ludwigia peploides and Pistia stratiotes. These invasive species are used by farmers as livestock feed and also as green manure for different agricultural and farming activities, As to the physico-chemical characteristics, no significant differences were observed for the temperature and the turbidity in various sites while the pH and conductivity, there was a highly significant difference between different sites. The hydrology of these rivers is seriously disturbed due to the presence of these invasive alien species. These species constitute a serious threat in the erosion of aquatic biodiversity in the removal of native species in the formation of floating monospecific dense mats as observed.

Conclusion: The invasion of alien species is a consequence of human activities and a concern, which affects all sectors of the society. It constitutes a true challenge for ecologists, economists, social scientists, agricultural engineers, environmentalists and other in order to develop and implement strong risk analysis frameworks and environmental impact assessments.

Open Access Original Research Article

Flood Mapping of Fadama Areas in Ile Ife, Nigeria Using Geospatial Techniques

J. E. Adewoyin, S. A. Ogunyemi, S. A. Samson, M. O. Adamu, O. Fasote

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2019/v11i430143

Flooding is a serious, common, and costly hazard that many countries face regularly, therefore a global concern. Vulnerability to flood hazards is likely to increase unless effective flood mitigation and management activities are implemented. Flooding is one of the most common environmental issues in the southern and the eastern part of Nigeria alongside with deforestation and erosion.

There is need to have information on flood risk and basis for priority setting on political decision on risk mitigation and management of fadama farmers in the study area and since there is lack of information on these, hence the study.

The study mapped out fadama areas in the study area (Ife East and Ife Central), identified areas susceptible to flooding, studied the effect of flooding on fadama production in terms of economic and social implication and examined the mitigating efforts of farmers.

Eleven Fadama points were mapped out and almost all are in the low elevation (3.5–7.1% slope) which made them prone to/or at risk of flooding during high peak of rainy season. Majority of the fadama farmers have a means of militating against flood by dredging the water ways but no government intervention has been done to assist them. All Fadama farmers are literate, therefore any assistance by the government would be embraced and not misunderstood.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Level and Extent of Anthropogenic Activities in and Around Protected Areas (PAs): Case of Baturiya Wetlands, Jigawa State Nigeria

Hadiza Z. Hadejia, Jibrin Gambo, Binta Zakari, Yusuf A. Yusuf, Ibrahim L. Muhammad

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2019/v11i430144

Wetlands are transitional points of habitats that are normally situated between a water body, vegetation cover and dry land. Human activities and climate change influence, the net loss of natural features in global wetlands. However, in the earlier 1990s, people began to understand the benefit of wetlands. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the level of anthropogenic activity in and around Baturiya wetlands and also to provide information on the extent of exploitation on Baturiya wetland. A questionnaire was designed and administered according to the objectives of the study. The result shows that a majority of the anthropogenic activity was conducted by men within the age range of 21-50 years. About 92.5% of the respondents are aware of the effect of the serial disturbances on vegetation resources. The exploitation was mainly for the massive use of energy, income generation, medicinal use and constructional materials. There is a strong need from the management and stakeholders to formulate a deliberate strategy for the provision of an alternative source of energy, health facilities, and a systematic awareness through training to the local communities around the Protected Areas (PAs) on wetland values, sustainable use of wetland resources and conservation strategies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Different Propagation Methods of Oxytenanthera abyssinica (A. Richard Munro) in Northwestern Tigray, Ethiopia

Kahsu Gebretsion, Kiros Abay

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2019/v11i430145

Aims: The study was conducted with the aim to identify the appropriate propagation techniques of the Oxytenanthera abyssinica.

Study Design: Four different propagation techniques namely rhizomes, culm cuttings, direct seed sowing and seedlings were used. A randomized complete block design was used for studying different seed and vegetative propagation treatments. Four planting materials were planted in each plot and replicated four times.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was done in Tselemti district northwestern zone of Tigray national regional state from June 2016-January 2018.

Results: The survival rate was higher in the direct seed sowing (56.25%) and seedlings (43.75%) compared to that of the rhizome (12.50%) and culm cutting (0%). The numbers of the culms per clumps were significantly higher in seedlings (15.75), direct seed sowing (22) and rhizome (9) than the culm cutting (0) and also the average height of the culms were higher in rhizomes, seedlings, and direct seed sowings than the culm cutting (P<0.05). Significant lower diameter sizes were recorded in direct sowing and culm cuttings compared to the rhizome and seedlings.

Conclusion: The present study confirmed that the direct sowing and seedlings propagation techniques of Oxytenanthera abyssinica are more appropriate and recommended to use in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Variability of Soil Extractable Micronutrients in the Upland and Lowland Topoposition Soils of Gubi Village, Bauchi State, North Eastern Nigeria

Ephraim Risul Biwe, Voncir Nanmwa, Alhaji Muhammad Hassan

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2019/v11i430146

The aim of this study was to assess the variability of extractable micronutrients in the varying topoposition soils of Gubi village. Four profile pits were dug at each of the designated topopositions making a total of eight profiles. The profiles were dug at the crest, upper slope, middle slope and valley bottom positions of the two toposequences and were named URFGU1, URFGU2, URFGU3 to URFGU4 and URFGL1. URFGL2, URFGL3 to URFGL4 for upland and lowland respectively. The content and profile distribution of extractable micronutrients copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn) and Iron (Fe) were extracted using 0.1 m HCl solution and determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) at appropriate wavelengths (Ca at 247 nm, Zn at 214 nm, Mn at 279 nm and Fe at 248 nm. Data generated was statistically analyzed using analysis of variance in nested experimental design. The significance of difference between treatments was determined using fishers LSD. Means that were significantly different were separated using the Least Significant Difference (LSD). The result reveals that Copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) varied significantly due to location. Iron and manganese were significantly higher in the upland soil (47.35 and 47.50 mg/kg respectively) than in the lowland soil (17.67 and 27.38 mg/kg respectively). The lowland soil had significantly higher Cu (1.31 mg/kg) than the upland soil (0.37 mg/kg).  Zinc (Zn) did not vary significantly due to location however the lowland soil (0.86 mg/kg) had a higher Zn content than the upland soil (0.26 mg/kg).