Open Access Original Research Article

Inferring True Species Richness and Complete Abundance Distribution in Six Reef-fish Communities from Red-sea, Using the Numerical Extrapolation of Incomplete Samplings

Jean Beguinot

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-21
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2019/v11i330136

Even when ecological communities are incompletely sampled (which is most frequent in practice, at least for species-rich assemblages including many rare species), it remains possible to retrieve much more information than could be expected first, by applying numerical extrapolation to incomplete field data. Indeed, recently developed procedures of numerical extrapolation of partial samplings now allow to estimate, with fair accuracy, not only the number of the still unrecorded species but, moreover, the distribution of abundances of each of these unrecorded species, thereby making available the full range of the Species Abundance Distribution, despite dealing with incomplete data only. In turn, this allows to address a series of descriptive and functional aspects of the internal organization of species assemblages, which otherwise would have required disposing of truly exhaustive samplings.

This approach is applied, here, to the previously reported partial samplings of six neighboring reef-fish communities from Tiran Island, Red Sea, with the goal of better understanding their internal organization in relation to their respective environments.

In practice, the numerical completion contributes to avoid erroneous interpretations that would likely stem from considering only the incomplete field data. This point is especially relevant when studying reef-associated communities because accurate understanding of their organization will help guiding and refining at best the protective measures required by these particularly vulnerable communities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Appraisal of Starch-bonded Briquettes Utilization among User-respondents in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

N. David-Sarogoro

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2019/v11i330137

The study appraised briquette users’ opinions on the apparent properties and environment friendliness of the briquettes bonded by 30% and 40% starch composited saw dust collected from Marine and Illoabuchi Sawmills in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Multistage sampling was used amongst 100 plantain (Bo-lae) roasters, meat barbecue (Suya), Garri (carbohydrate based food), and Akara (baked bean cake) respondents to elicit information on use of briquettes as an alternative source of energy on a 4-point Likert scale. The results showed that male user-respondents were 22 (88%) and 21 (84%) and female 3 (12%) from Marine and Illoabuchi sawmills, respectively. The 41-50 respondent age bracket were the most represented in both sawmills-Marine Base and Illoabuchi 12 (48%) and 11 (44%) respectively, followed by 31-40 (7: 28%) and 51-60 (4: 16%) in Illaboachi sawmill, while the 51-60 and 31-40 age groups were 6 (24%) and 5 (20%), respectively. Amongst the businesses run by respondents, users from Marine Base, plantain roasting was highest at 7 (28%), followed by fish barbecue and akara with 6 (24%), Suya had 5(20%), while at Illoabuchi, Suya grillers had 9 (36%), followed by plantain roasters 8 (32%). Garri stewards and Akara had the same 3 (12%). Environment friendliness and physical properties showed that briquettes smoked well with cut off Mark (M =3.04 and 3.80), smelled pleasantly (M=3.03 and 2.68), stuffy and choky smoke (M=0.4 and 1.00) and irritation of eyes had M=3.25 and 4.00 at Illaobuchi and Marine Base sawmills, respectively. Darkening pots, burning with dark smoke and being affected by water had their cut off marks at 1.33 and 1.40 (rejected), 2.63 and 2.50 (accepted) and 2.01 and 2.12 (rejected), portable, cheap and useful had M= 2.45 and 3.00, 3.60 and 3.60 and 3.40 and 3.09 from both mills respectively. This study recommends that briquetting of sawdust from sawmills be promoted via automation to maximize its utilization status.

Open Access Original Research Article

Climate Change and Migration: Adapting to Crisis

Surendra Singh, Alka Singh, C. B. Singh

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2019/v11i330139

The present study is attempted to identify the determinants of migration in India. The National Sample Survey data of 64th round (July 2007-June 2008) was used and decoded to elicit household-level information. A multi-criteria approach was adapted to the analysis of the data. The study’s findings revealed that about 70% of migrated people are illiterate, while 57% of migrated people were agricultural laborers. The multi-criteria analysis results for permanent migration revealed that farmers belong to the rural area, having a land size less than two hectares, belonging to the Hindu religion, are likely to migrate permanently. Also, illiteracy, marital status, low consumption expenditure in rural areas, rainfall, and minimum temperature motivate farmer’s decision to adopt migration as an ultimate coping strategy against climate change. As far as grass-root policy interventions are concern, it is suggested that in rural areas, where unemployment has the main driver for migration, a proactive social protection programme, i.e., MGNREGA can be part of a proactive approach to managing climate-induced migration. Climate change as a cause of migration is uncertain and contextual. This necessitates the inclusivity of local populations in decision-making wherein their perceptions and responses are democratically represented and not merely channeled into participatory processes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Co-Exposure to Lead and Mercury among Artisanal Gold Miners

S. Rabiu, M. G. Abubakar, D. M. Sahabi, M. A. Makusidi, A. Dandare

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2019/v11i330140

Background: Illegal mining pitch and metal ores processing sites are frequently seen in many parts of Nigerian communities. Gold ore processing is widespread in communities of Zamfara State. These activities produce significant amount of dust that pollute the environment.

Aim: The study was conducted to determine the extent of exposure to lead and mercury in artisanal gold miners in Bagega and Kawaye districts and Yargalma village of Anka and Bukkuyum Local Government Areas respectively.

Methods:  Seventy gold ore miners were recruited from twelve different mining or processing sites of the affected villages. Serum lead determination was carried out using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS Perkin Elmer, 6300 model USA) and mercury was determined by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (Spectra-10 varian).

Results: The blood lead and mercury levels of the exposed individuals ranged between 15 – 561.2 µg/dl and 0.21 – 196 µg/dl respectively. Majority (75.7%) had blood lead levels beyond 45 µg/dl with average mean of 368.62±15.20 and mean blood mercury levels of 168.86±8.92 µg/dl. The blood lead and mercury levels were significantly (p<0.05) high in 16-30 age bracket compared to 0-15 and 31-45 age groups. Similarly, Individuals from Bagega village had significantly (p<0.05) high blood lead and mercury levels compared to Kawaye and Yargalma villages. The high blood lead and mercury levels recorded in this study are far above OSHA permissible limit (40 µ/dl) and are therefore a call for concern.

Conclusion: The results indicate the co-exposure to lead and mercury in the artisanal gold miners. The individuals in age bracket 16-30 years are at high risk of synergistic adverse health effects of lead and mercury toxicities. The exposed individuals require urgent medical attention for proper intervention and possible total withdrawal from the work.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on Physicochemical and Microbial Profiles of Selected Hotel Swimming Pools in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

D. C. Belonwu, M. K. C. Duru, A. T. O. Adenikinju, C. O. Alisa, O. T. Dawodu, C. C. Ike, A. A. Eze, W. O. Kalu

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2019/v11i330141

Studies on physicochemical and microbial profiles of selected hotel swimming pools in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria was carried out using standard methods. Six swimming pools of selected hotels within the Port Harcourt city that people use for recreational activity were selected for this study. The selection was done in such a way that all the zones within the city were considered. The hotels names were coded with alphabets for confidentiality. Each swimming pool was divided into up and down ends for this study. Average result obtained for both ends in each pool was taken as a sample value for each pool and was compared to World Health Organisation (WHO) standard for recreational water. Physicochemical results such as pH, alkalinity, calcium hardness, chlorine and residual chlorine of most of the studied pools were not within WHO standard. The microbial loads of the studied pools in terms of total coliform, faecal coliform and Escherichia coli were higher than WHO standard. There is no doubt that most of the studied hotel swimming pools fall short of WHO standard for recreational activity. This becomes important when the consequences of swimming in such pools to humans are considered. There is urgent need for the hotels hosting the studied swimming pools to adopt the important five keys to maintaining water quality in swimming pool, which include proper filtration, proper chlorination as well as adjustment of pH, total alkalinity and calcium hardness levels as stipulated by WHO standards. This study has shown the physicochemical and microbial profiles of selected hotel swimming pools in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.