Open Access Original Research Article

Wastewater Management of Korhogo City

Kouakou Yao Salomon, Seyhi Brahima, Gnamba Franck Maxime, Kouassi N’guessan Martial, Kouame Nanan Audrey

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2019/v11i130126

The present study was conducted to provide more information on wastewater management in developing country cities, particularly in Korhogo a city in the north of Ivory Coast. Results showed that 23% of the residences discharge their wastewater either in rivers around the city, in pipes intended for storm water drainage, or on the way for laundry, crockery and/or bath water. 43% and 34% release their water through watertight and non-watertight facilities such as septic tanks and latrines, respectively. A factory evacuates its wastewater directly into the environment without any prior treatment. Only the Regional Hospital (CHR) has a lagoon system which is in a very advanced state of dysfunctioning. The city has a sludge treatment site that receives on average between 30 and 34 m3 per day, well below 100 m3 per day (sizing volume), leading to a significant algal development in the biological treatment basins and a fairly average yield of the plant below 55% at the end of treatment.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study on the Effects of Leachate on Groundwater in Selected Dumpsites in Rivers State, Nigeria

N. Ugbebor, John, Ntesat, Brownson

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2019/v11i130127

The health and environmental risk associated with unlined open waste dumpsites are worrisome. This study, therefore, evaluated the leachate and its final fate on groundwater pollution at selected solid wastes dumpsites in Rivers State. Leachate samples collected near the dumpsites were analyzed to determine the physical and biochemical characteristics. The two studied dumpsites indicated that the computed TCB were 296.33±6.22 cfu/100 ml and 182.68±21.33 cfu/100 ml respectively which were within the permissible limits of 400cfu/100 ml specified by World Health Organization (WHO) and Federal Ministry of Environment (FMEnv); which suggest low quantities of disease-causing agents in the groundwater. The total heterotrophic bacteria (THB) were 21x104 cfu/ml and 17x104 cfu/ml. These high values of THB may not be an indication of contamination of groundwater but it indicates a gradual decline in raw water quality. The values of SO42-, PO43-, TDS, DO, BOD and COD at the dumpsites were 196.52±6.26 mg/l and 9.12±0.59 mg/l, 139.23±3.19 mg/l and 3.81±0.68 mg/l, 5952.23±72.52 mg/l and 12663.33±490.95 mg/l;1.51±0.42. mg/l and 2.02±0.16 mg/l; 31.22±4.12 mg/l and 21.33±3.51 mg/l, and313.30±6.57 mg/l and 270.33±26.16 mg/l respectively which exceeded the standards of the WHO and FMEnv. The high values of analyzed parameters were an indication of the groundwater contamination. Heavy metals in the Rumuosi dumpsite indicated 11.31±1.33 mg/l, 11.01±0.67 mg/l, 361.84±12.31 mg/l, 118.03±5.74 mg/l and 84.77±4.84 mg/l for Pb, As, Mn, Fe and Zn respectively. While Heavy metals thresholds at Igwuruta were 0.004±0.005 mg/l, 0.04±0.07 mg/l, 0.05±0.08 mg/l, 0.08±0.14 mg/l and 0.15±0.04 mg/l respectively. Rumuosi thresholds exceeded the standards, indicating that the exposed local people in the nearby communities may experience cases of non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risk by drinking the groundwater. The leachate pollution index (LPI) at the studied dumpsites indicated 13.58 and 12.9 which exceeded the internationally accepted benchmark of 7.38; indicating that the Rumuosi leachate was more polluted than Igwuruta leachate. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the pollutant characteristics indicated a significant difference at p=0.05 across the physicochemical and biological indicators at Rumuosi dumpsite over Igwuruta dumpsite. The researcher recommended the practice of sanitary landfill which may reduce the risk of leachate percolation, a primary source of groundwater contamination.

Open Access Original Research Article

Disaster Communication in 4.0 Era: Review of Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Lombok West Nusa Tenggara

Kholil ., Aris Setyawan, Nafiah Ariani, Dan Soehatman Ramli

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2019/v11i130128

Effect of Lombok earthquake on July 29, 2018 was very extensive, 50-60% of infrastuctures (dam, road, market) destroyed, 132.000 houses damaged and 564 people died. Total of economic losses reach IDR 10.1 trillion. The most serious problem is communication, between government, local community and other institutions.  Actually the earthquake news makes people panic and confused what to do.

The purpose of this study is to design an appropriate disaster communication model in digital era and to identify the most important aspects during disaster. Method used was SAST (Strategic Assumption and Surfacing Testing) and ECM (Exponential Comparation Method). SAST method selected to identify the most strategic assumption (important and certainty) which must be considered in economic recovery; while ECM is used to select the most appropriate strategy of community economic recovery post earthquake.

Study results showed that the most efective communication during a disaster is establishing a disaster information center involving the BMKG (Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysical Agency) and BPBD (Local Disaster Agency) and local government.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dynamics of Sediment Organic Matter along Bandama River in the Department of Sinématiali, Northern Côte d’Ivoire

N’doufou Gnosseith Huberson Claver, Kouadio Koffi Hypolithe, Nangah Krogba Yves, Tra Bi Djè Frederic

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2019/v11i130129

This study examines the distribution of organic matter in areas affected by frequent floods along the east bank of the Bandama River in the department of Sinématiali. The sites sampled are defined by two zones, one near the stream and one far from the stream. Samples collected were analyzed, including for texture with aggregation analysis by the Robinson pipette, and standard sediment analysis methods for measuring organic carbon (CO), nitrogen (N), and organic matter (MO). Statistical analyzes were carried out to assess the differences between the physico-chemical parameters of the different sampling areas. Results show that sediment from the various study sites has a sando-limonous to limono-clay texture. Total organic matter levels are higher in surface sediments that contain the lowest proportions of clay. Rates range from 31.98 gkg-1 to 38.98 gkg-1. In depth, the rates obtained are very low and range from 6.3 gkg-1 to 8.193 gkg-1. The low rates recorded in depth are reported to be related to leaching caused by periodic flooding. These results show that successive floods have a direct effect on the dynamics of the physico-chemical properties of the sediments along the shore.

Open Access Review Article

Improvements of Crop Production through Integrated Soil Fertility Management in Ethiopia

Tamirat Wato

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2019/v11i130130

Agriculture plays a central role within the Ethiopian economy. In our country, concerning 85% of total population depends on agriculture and its product. This implies agriculture provides a good portion of national product growth. In spite of the importance of this sector, production and productivity area units restricted by varied biophysical, social and economic aspects. Soil fertility decline is one of the central issues that scale back Ethiopian agriculture and at last, it ends up in poverty and starvation. The main causes of those entrenched challenges are the land degradation showed in type of soil fertility decline, as introduced by varied hindrances as deforestation, overgrazing and through a consequence of wearing away, deposit, pollution, etc. Hence, the core objectives of this review are to evaluate the soil fertility status in Ethiopia, the sources of soil fertility decline and find improved resolutions to soil fertility in Ethiopia. As the physiological factors of the country are rugged with dynamical sorts of soils, preponderantly the upland wherever regarding 90% of the tillable land is concentrated, difficulties such as soil erosion, meager and incessant cultivation are the chief reasons of soil fertility loss. Thus, the application of combined soil fertility management approach with presence and mixture of manure, compost, crop rotation, soil protection practices provides improved production and saves the soil fertility standing to an improved level. The apply undertaken by the government of Ethiopia, is that the application of optimum rate of fertilizers, but it's not thriving as a results of various factors like amendment of agroecology, edaphic factors, the social and economic state of affairs of the farmer, repair to property combined soil fertility management to get high yield while not compromising the soil fertility position within the future, this can be broad and needed to be followed.