Open Access Original Research Article

Household Indigenous Drought Coping and Adaptation Strategies in Baringo County, Kenya

Maurice Manyonge Pepela, Ferdinand Nabiswa, Edward Mugalavai

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2019/v10i430121

Coping and adaptation to the impacts of climate change such as drought is increasingly necessary. Due to the expanding global impacts of climate change coping and adaptation agenda among various agencies, it is of primary importance to understand the coping and adaptation strategies in order to generate the most appropriate and effective interventions. The study established drought coping and adaptation strategies employed by households in Baringo County and this was based on Pressure and Release (PAR) model which grounds the framework for understanding vulnerability to disasters and adaptation. The 224 household heads were selected by simple random sampling out of which 204 completed the questionnaire. The study adopted description research design. Data was analyzed by both descriptive and qualitative statistics where the SPSS package version 22 was used in the analysis where the chi – square and percentages were obtained. The study established that households had various drought coping and adaptation strategies where 77 (37.7%) informed the study that during drought season they normally shift to other ways or sources of livelihoods, herd splitting were 58 (28.4%) while 44 (21.6%) do herd and crop diversification. A calculated chi – square (χ2 =79.186, p–value=0.000 df=4) of the main coping mechanisms indicated that the variation was statistically significant. The study provided baseline information for further research. However, there is need for outside intervention or strategies for effectiveness since the community does not have well laid down strategies for climate change coping and adaptation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Soil Based Heavy Metals Originating from Anthropogenic Activities on Floristic Composition of Some Selected Sites in Kaduna Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria

A. I. Sodimu, G. B. Onwumere, V. M. Yilwa

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2019/v10i430122

Soil based heavy metals originating from anthropogenic activities on floristic composition of some selected sites in Northern Guinea savanna of Nigeria were investigated.   50m x 50m plots were laid in each of the three (3) selected sites with 30m espacement between each plot. This is replicated three (3) times to make a total of nine (9) plots in all.  Soil samples were collected at a depth of 25m with a soil auger and heavy metal analysis was carried out with the use of atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The floristic compositions were evaluated using line transect method. Flora were enumerated in all the sites irrespective of the growth form, (i.e. trees, shrubs and herbs). The data collected were subjected to descriptive statistic, Anova using SPSS while the diversity index was calculated using Shannon Weiner method. The study revealed the presence of six (6) soil based metals in the selected sites, Cd; Cu; Mn; Ni; V and Zn.  Significance differences (P<0.05) exist in soil based heavy metal between sites.  A total of two thousand two hundred and sixty one (2,261) floral species were evaluated. The population densities of the floristic composition are higher in site A than all the other sites while species diversity decrease significantly (P<0.05) from Site A to C.  It is concluded that population densities and diversity of the floristic composition in the selected sites are influenced as a result of soil based heavy metals originating from anthropogenic activities in the sites. It is however recommended that there should be provision of guidelines for the abatement of pollution establishing standard for the control of fuel additives with respect to heavy metals.  Also, there should be prescribed standard for the level of emission from automobile exhaust and energy generating plants and stations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Issues and Application of Linearized Models in Geomorphic Properties of the Ikpa Watershed, Nigeria

Umo, Ikpong Sunday, M. C. Ike, Ojinma, C. Chux

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2019/v10i430123

Though more geomorphological researches are being conducted and previous ideas are being reviewed among geographers and earth scientists, only limited attempts are focused on coupling the relationships among geomorphic attributes on the watersheds in the Humid Tropics. These invariably induced new trends and research directions at diverging scales. This paper is guided by three specific objectives: (1) to employ the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) in deriving the morphologic attributes of the Ikpa Watershed (11) to assess the association and effect of discharge on basin texture, infiltration rate, length of overland flow, and rainfall amount in the Ikpa Watershed, Akwa Ibom State. (111) To describe the relationship between discharge, rainfall amount, and morphologic attributes of the Ikpa Watershed. The watershed was stratified into six sub-basins and data (rainfall and discharge) systematically generated for three months each during the dry and rainy seasons; while the topographic attributes were generated indirectly using SRTM, backup with the four topographic maps. The analysis using multiple linear regression yielded a coefficient of 0.986. Also, the R square value of 0.859 implied that 85.9 percent of the proportion of variation in discharge amount of the Ikpa watershed is accounted for by the four independent variables. A comparison of the computed ANOVA result of 8.469 with the Table value of 7.7086 implied that variation in mean discharge is attributed to the significant effect of basin texture, infiltration rate, length overland flow, and rainfall amount in the Ikpa watershed. The results of the curve estimate for linear, logarithmic, and quadratic equations suggested normal predictive ability and each significant at 0.05 confidence level. This study concluded that the dominances of gully erosion at the upstream and peak-flood discharge at the middle and downstream areas of the watershed are directly influenced by the rainfall events and morphology of the landform.   

Open Access Original Research Article

Biotolerance of Orechromis niloticus to Nickel (Ni) Inside the Agodi Reservoir at Ibadan, Nigeria

Ogungbile Peter, A. Akande John, T. O. Ogunbode, O. Odekunle

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2019/v10i430124

Orechromis niloticus (Tilapia) that was rarely found in feeder Ogunpa River was more invasive in the receiving Agodi Reservoir and this provoked an examination of the remote causes. .Sampled water temperature and pH were measured with standard analytical methods while Ni, Co and Cr concentrations in water and fish were selectively tested using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS).Data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance and linear regression to establish clear relationships. On the average, temperature was 27.15ºC, pH 7.56, Ni 0.27 mg/L, Co 0.75 mg/L and Cr 0.005 mg/Lin Ogunpa River, while in Agodi Reservoir, temperature was 27.42ºC, pH 7.57, Ni 0.17 mg/L, Co 0.19 mg/L and Cr 0.005 mg/L. The temperature and pH values were higher in Agodi Reservoir than in the Ogunpa River but only the concentrations of Ni and Co in Ogunpa River were higher than in Agodi Reservoir. Using the FAO/WHO permissible limits, only the Ni concentration appeared potent in influencing Tilapia eco-dynamics. Ni accumulation could be lethal and must have affected the fish relocation and distribution, thus, a conclusion that Ni concentration and its synergistic effects with temperature could be responsible for the migration of the fish into the Agodi Reservoir.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance Evaluation of Constructed Bench Terraces in Southern Zone of Tigray Region

Tuemay Tassew, Abadi Gidey, Gebru Eyasu

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2019/v10i430125

In the varying climate and weather environments and fast-growing population, the production of feed that could meet the demand of this ever-growing population will be challenging with limited land, soil, and water resources. In many developing countries, terraces have been constructed in sloppy, hilly and valley areas to rectify their shortage of cultivated land and severe water erosion problems to meet livelihood demands. In the southern zone of Tigray region, various labor-intensive bench terraces (BTs) have been constructed and are on the way of construction. Despite its coverage and labor intensiveness, these terraces are facing problems such as malfunctioning and collapse of structures leading to unsustainability, unproductiveness and additional labor and material costs. Thus, this study was designed to identify the basis of the above-mentioned problems and to put real solutions for the problems. A multi-disciplinary evaluation of BTs from natural resources and socioeconomic researchers was conducted to identify observational gaps in the stability and sustainability of the terraces and to put ways forward. Technical assessment and measurement of BTs were conducted onsite to evaluate and compare the specification with the recommended specification. Inappropriate site selection, water scarcity, free-grazing and neglected maintenance, poor buffer zone, and stone placement were directly or indirectly major reasons for the failure of bench terrace (BT) structures. Most of the BTs were not supported with biological soil and water conservation materials. Site selection and technical standards of BTs should be done based on recommended specifications with continuous follow-up.