Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Environmental Heterogeneity on the Species Composition, Species Richness and Species Abundances Unevenness in Reef-associated Conus Communities (Neogastropoda) from Papua New-Guinea

Jean Béguinot

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-21
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2019/v10i330116

To what extent differences in species composition, species richness and species abundance unevenness between marine communities are attributable to heterogeneities of the surrounding environment and/or to inter-community distance is a fundamental issue to be addressed, in order to more deeply understand the functioning of marine ecosystems. A comparison between six reef-associated Conus communities, differing more or less in both their surrounding environment and their mutual geographical distance, offers a relevant opportunity to address these questions.

As expected, environmental heterogeneities prove having a significant influence on the dissimilarity in species composition, whereas distance-decay in similarity reveals comparatively negligible, at least within the investigated range of distances, up to 60 km. Less expectedly, more homogeneous surrounding environments between communities tend, here, to increase the dissimilarity in species richness. At last, here, difference in species abundance unevenness between communities seems unrelated to either environmental heterogeneity or inter-community distance.

From a methodological point of view, these results could not have been reliably established without the prior implementation of a least-biased procedure of numerical extrapolation applied to the available incomplete samplings. Also, the relevant assessment of dissimilarity in species composition required using a modified Jaccard index, rendered insensitive to bias-induced differences in communities species richness.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Dumpsite on Water Quality of Shallow Wells: A Case Study of Nasarawa Town, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

C. E. Anumiri, I. Onaiwu, E. A. Obajulu, Y. Aliyu

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2019/v10i330117

Municipal solid waste management has emerged as one of the greatest challenges facing environmental protection agencies in developing countries. Water for drinking, cooking and bathing exposes people, especially young children to a wide range of health risks, including diarrheal diseases. This paperis aimed to study the physio-chemical and bacteriological qualities of water samples collected from the wells close to dumpsites in some selected location of Nasarawa Local Government Area, Nasarawa State. From the research, waste dumps which are located indiscriminately in Nasarawa town have strong influence on shallow groundwater samples. The physico-chemical and bacteriological properties of the water samples collected from wells fall short of WHO standard. Also, a significant difference was observed between these parameters value in wet and dry seasons. Heavy metals were also detected in the water samples above the acceptable range as recommended by WHO. Significant difference in value of electrical conductivity between wet season and dry season is attributed to the increase in water volume in the well which reduces the salt concentration. Diseases related to drinking non portable water was the most reported cases in all the clinics visited in Nasarawa Local Government Area and this might be as a result of people of this community drinking from these water sources. It was recommended that shallow well should be well lined likewise located far away from dumpsite and latrine, water from these sources should undergo so level of treatment before consumption.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Marine Ecosystem Disturbances on Sources of Income in Ibeno Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

Ettemfon Silas Udom, Iniodu Ukpong, Inibehe Ukpong, Anietie Udom

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2019/v10i330118

This research investigated the impact of marine ecosystem disturbances on the sources of income of the people in Ibeno Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. The main objective was to determine the influence of environmental disturbances on the sources of income of people in the oil producing coastal areas of Ibeno. The study took a period of two years and involved collection of water samples from twelve locations in six coastal communities in Ibeno for laboratory analysis, and administration of 410 questionnaires out of which 400 were used to extract data on sources of income (occupation) and environmental disturbances. Multiple regression analysis and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were employed to determine the relationship between sources of income (Y) and environmental disturbances (Xs). In the final analysis, the water physiochemical property test shows a relatively normal nutrients loading in the area but act in synergy with others in impacting on the environment. Seven elements of environmental disturbances were identified; erosion, acid-rain, deforestation, tidal actions, oil pollution, coastal flooding and rise in sea level. The study equally revealed that fishing was the major source of income of the coastal people and was mostly affected. In the regression analysis, the environmental disturbances and the sources of income (occupation) relate significantly at 0.5% probability test. The study concluded that the synergic effect of acid-rain due to oil activities, run-off sediments deposited in the river, direct and accidental discharge of crude into the river, coastal flooding/tidal actions that spread the pollutants along the coast and mangrove removal, destroyed fishes, reduced catch and cause serious decline in the income base of the people in Ibeno. Thus, it is important to promote environmental protection, conservation and sustainable harvesting to remedy the situation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Levels of Some Metals in Water and Fish from Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria

J. D. Dabak, L. J. Dabal, A. G. Jakwa, E. A. Ajiji

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2019/v10i330119

Aim: This study was designed to assess the levels of chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co) and nickel (Ni) in water and fish to monitor the toxicity risk of consuming these fish.

Place and Duration of Studies: The water and fish samples were obtained from Farin gada river, Liberty Dam, Dahwol-Tohort and Diye-Tohort mining ponds, all within Jos Metropolis, Plateau State, Nigeria, between March and April, 2018.

Methodology: Water and six fish species samples were collected from four different locations, digested and analysed using Buck Scientific Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer, model 210VGP.

Results: Farin gada river had all the four metals studied in varying concentrations in the following order Mn>Ni>Co>Cr with Mn having the highest mean concentration of 0.4133±0.0100 mg/L. The concentrations of the metals in the other three sources were in the order of Ni>Co>Cr with Mn not detected. Cr also was not detected in Lamingo Dam. The concentrations of Mn and Ni in all the water sources were higher than the World Health Organisation (WHO) maximum permissible limits of 0.05 mg/L and 0.06 mg/L respectively. Petrocephalus bovei recorded the highest mean concentrations of Mn and Ni, while Co was highest in Clarias gariepinus species. The concentrations of these metals in the head, body and gills of the fish species showed that the head of Petrocephalus bovei species had the highest concentrations of all the metals except chromium. Fish species from other water sources exhibited the same general pattern of Head˃gill˃body except Co which was found to accumulate more in the body than in other parts of the fish.

Conclusion: The results showed that there was biomagnification of these metals from water to the fish as the concentration of the metals in the fish far exceeded those of the water sources from which they were obtained and Petrocephalus bovei species has the highest potential to biomagnified all the metals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spatial-temporal Changes in Land Use Land Cover and its Impacts on Wildlife Conservation in Meru Conservation Area, Kenya

Kiria Edwin, Magana Adiel, Njue Cyprian

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2019/v10i330120

Habitat conversion can be a major threat to biodiversity. Recent and current levels of human activities on landscapes appear to be overriding the natural changes to ecosystems brought about by climate variations in the past millennia. The impact of anthropogenic activities on wildlife habitat and species vary depending on the spatial and temporal scales considered and the persistence of the activities in the landscape. This study was carried out in Meru Conservation Area (MCA) to examine land use and land cover changes (LULC) that have taken place within and around the Protected Area (PA) from 1985 with an emphasis of anthropogenic activities which have altered wildlife habitat and species. The distribution of land use types within and around MCA has produced land use patterns which this study seeks to establish the extent and effects in relation to wildlife conservation. To establish the LULC, Landsat satellite images of medium resolution were acquired and interpretation done using ArchGIS. Four satellite images with a span of three decades from 1985 to 2015 were acquired for analysis. The results revealed significant changes in MCA ecosystem over the study period, accounting for 9.9% and 6.1% increase in grassland and bareland respectively. This means that agricultural activities are encroaching towards the protected areas in the land that was formerly used as wildlife corridors and dispersal areas. It is also an indication that there is a significant change in the forestland and shrubland which has reduced by 2.3% and 15.7% respectively resulting to bareland and grassland. The results of the study provide an insight on the threat to the future survival of wildlife in their ecosystems due to declining ecosystems productivity as well as socioeconomic livelihood of communities living around the MCA. The results of this study therefore call for an integrated planning approach towards management of protected areas in order to meet wildlife and human needs in view of the changing climate regimes.