Open Access Short Research Article

Subsurface Investigation for Effective Water Resource Prospect: A Panacea to Problem of Water Supply Services in the Built Environment of the Newly Created Areas in Anambra, Nigeria

Uche Felix Ikechukwu, A. A. Onunkwo

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2019/v10i130106

The creation of new Local Government Areas (LGA) in Nigeria has brought about problem of water scarcity due to population increase and consequent increase in the construction of residential buildings; especially in the south east in the recent time . Ihiala LGA is a case under study. Since the creation of Ihiala local government area in Anambra State of Nigeria, there is the need for underground water resource development for effective water supply system towards sustainable housing in the area due to population increase, and development of more residential buildings. By using Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) technique in geophysical survey of the subsurface, it was discovered that there are about six litho-logical units in the area. The subsurface litho-logy, aquifer depth and their dispositions, were probed using Abem Tetrameters 300 SAS and Geographic Information System equipments to identify the resistivity of the formations. In the area, sand stone deposit is prominent at the upper levels between 3 to 27 meters. Aquifer depth is located within 75 to 120 meters. The saturated sand stones significantly occur within the 3rd and 5th layers of the litho-logical horizons. The aquifer is mostly semi confined, and composed of sand, silty sand and sand-stone mineral aggregates. Subsurface water resources exploitation using borehole facility in the area therefore should reference these discoveries for easy and sustainable underground water resource development, to meet the people daily need for good water in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study of Discrete Dynamical System and Moving Average Model in Assessing and Predicting Availability of Clean Water

Ayda Asyra Abdul Razak, Dian Idayu Mohamed Ali, Rosmalina Che Yakzam, Nuratikah Amid Dudin, Masnita Misiran, Zahayu Md. Yusof

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2019/v10i130105

Many developing countries, Malaysia included, are constantly faced with problems in managing water resources as there is lack of integration and holistic approach with little participation from the general public and other stakeholders apart from the government. In this study, two quantitative models, which are the discrete dynamical system and moving average, is applied to obtain the forecast value of clean water in Malaysia’s river basin by using open source data with minimal cost of analysis. The findings suggested that moving average method is superior as it provides better accuracy in forecasting with small error rate. The method is easy to understand, used standard MS Excel in computing, and need only minimal requirement of the machine’s operating system. Continuous assessment to the quality level of clean water in Malaysia’s river basin should be strictly regulated to ensure the right course of action to manoeuvre effective countermeasure for this issue. Among the counter measures may be in a form of focused education towards specified target groups, regulatory exercises, as well as awareness campaigns that are more effectively arranged.

Open Access Original Research Article

Logging and Lithostratigraphic Study of the Cenomanian-Santonian Reservoirs of Four Oil Wells MSP1, MSP2, MSP3 and MSP4 of the Margin of San-Pedro (Côte d’Ivoire)

Bié Goha René, Gbangbot Jean-Michel Kouadio, Diangone Eric, Yao N’Goran Jean-Paul, Digbéhi Zéli Bruno

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-21
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2019/v10i130107

The logging and petrophysical study of four oil wells, MSP1, MSP2, MSP3 and MSP4 from San-Pedro margin of the Ivorian sedimentary basin has made it possible to evaluate the reservoir characteristics of the Cenomanian-Santonian age formations. Lithostratigraphically, this study has shown that this interval consists of clay and sandstone deposits interspersed with frequent past carbonate.

At the logging, ten (10) sandstone reservoirs are highlighted with effective porosities ranging from 16% to 21% and permeabilities from 100 mD to 1100 mD (millidarcy).

These reservoirs have very good petrophysical characteristics however their high water saturation show that they are rather aquifers. The various log gamma ray profiles of the intervals considered highlight a fluvial and marine deposition environment. Sedimentation would have started in a Cenomanian-type fluvial environment and would have continued in a marine environment marked by the accumulation of sandstone and clay under the influence of transgression and regression phases in the Turonian and Lower Senonian.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Ecological Impact of Human Settlement on Trees in Oban and Okwangwo Forests of Cross River National Park, Nigeria

Onen Ibiang Onen, Celestine Uzoma Aguoru, Charles Chidozie Iheukwumere, Joseph Olalekan Olasan, Andrew Ashieta Aboh

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2019/v10i130108

The ecological impacts of human settlement on trees in Oban and Okwangwo Forests of Cross River National Park located in Nigeria was carried out in the park with the view of providing  information on the activities of the support zones and enclave communities in both (Oban and Okwangwo) divisions of the park. Surveillance tours were carried out in company of the park rangers in the park and enclave communities. Each division was divided into two (2) zones each (core and peripheral) for ease of coverage. Plots were randomly selected in each study site at regular number of paces (fixed interval) to avoid coincidence.

Data collections and observations were carried out for a period of four (4) months in both divisions. Random Sampling method was used for the study. Eight (8) plots of size 50 each were marked out using wooden pegs with red ribbon tied across the pegs in the core zones in both divisions (Oban and okwangwo). Same was applicable to the peripheral zones in both divisions giving a total number of 32 plots. The total number of trees per plot was determined by direct stem count and trees with 30 cm girth and above was considered for the count. The total number of trees counted in the core zones was (Oban 141 and Okwangwo 162) and the peripheral zones (Oban 120 and Okwangwo 127). Descriptive statistics was applied on the data to determine the mean, standard deviation and range. The T-test for tree counted in Oban (Table 3) reveals that Tcal(1.161)≤Ttab(2.365) and the difference had a mean of 3.875, TCal ≤ Ttab at 5% level of significance. The T-test for tree counts in Okwangwo (Table 6) shows that Tcal(3.040)≥Ttab(2.365),  TCal ≥ Ttab at 5% level of significance. F-statistics (Table 8) revealed a significance level in their differences, Ftab (p=0.05) df (7,7) = 3.79, FCal = 5.384.

This calls for fast action on the resettlement of the enclave communities and provision of alternative sources of income for the support zones and enclave communities. Strategies should be adopted and improved upon if biodiversity is to be conserved. These strategies are embedded in increasing staff strength, well equipped and dedicated rangers as well as the absence of surrounding enclave communities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Allometric Models for Estimating Site Index of Teak (Tectona grandis Linn F.) in Kanya Forest Plantation, Kebbi State, Nigeria

A. Dantani, S. B. Shamaki, M. A. Gupa, M. Sa’idu, R. B. Mukhtar, M. Umar, B. Abubakar, A. Abubakar

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2019/v10i130110

This study aims to develop site index for Teak (Tectona grandis) in Kanya Forest Plantation, Nigeria. Site index is defined as the total height of the dominant or co-dominant trees at an arbitrary index age, it is a method used for quantifying site quality for pure even-aged stands which is essential in growth and yield modelling. The data used in this study were obtained from six different age classes. Five sample plots each were selected across all age classes in which a total of 712 trees were measured, variables measured include total height, diameter at the base, middle, top, and diameter at the breast height were taken from 30 temporary sampled plots of 25x25m approximately from the centre, 180 dominant trees were selected from 712 trees. Basal area and volume of sampled trees were computed. Yield values obtained from the dominant trees are (B = 249.312 m3/ha, D = 196.128 m3/ha, F = 134.976 m3/ha, C = 119.328 m3/ha, E = 100.320 m3/ ha and A = 86.976 m3/ha). The results showed that B was the best and A was the poorest. Seventeen models were generated and paired sampled t-test was used for model validation, comparing the actual and predicted height. Two out of 17 were rejected (significant P<0.05). The first model Hd=12075.346-354.809(Age)+3.448(Age)2-135193.126(1/Age) is the recommended height estimation of Teak in Kanya Forest plantation for its best performance.