Open Access Original Research Article

Distribution of Butterfly Species Associated with Environmental Factors in Sri Lanka

P. M. S. S. Kumari, P. Wijekoon

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2019/v9i330093

The species diversity monitoring of butterflies in Sri Lanka is considered in this study under certain environmental factors.  Species richness, and Shannon and Simpson’s diversity indices were calculated to understand the variation of the distributions of butterfly species. Maximum and minimum diversity and richness were observed from Rathnapura and Puththalama districts in Sri Lanka, respectively.  Based on the Diamond’s assembly rules and Probabilistic models, it was noted that most of the butterflies were randomly distributed, and there was little predictable co-occurrence between species pairs. To study the distributional patterns of butterfly species with environmental factors, five different types of regression models were fitted by considering the occurrences of each species. The results clearly indicated that the distribution of butterfly species varies from species to species according to the different environmental factors. Further, the occurrence of most of the butterfly species depends on temperature and total rain fall. Prediction of species occurrences with respect to the environmental factors can be done by using the best fitted model of each species. The methodology and results of the study can be adapted to monitor the biodiversity of a certain area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Sago Effluent on the Growth Hormone Levels in Clarias batrachus Blood Sample

F. Ramesh

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2019/v9i330095

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of Sago effluent on the levels of growth hormone in the blood samples of the fresh water fish Clarias batrachus. The fish were exposed to control and different concentrations of treated sago effluents. The concentrations chosen were 25%, 50% and 75% of treated sago effluent. The levels of the growth hormone were increased in the blood sample of the experimental fish Clarias batrachus, when compared with that of controls.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Impact of Coastal Forest Succession and the Healthcare Challenges in Eastern Obolo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

Ettemfon Silas Udom, Iniodu George Ukpong, Anietie Udom

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2019/v9i330097

The impact of coastal forest succession and the healthcare challenges was conduct in some selected oil communities in Eastern Obolo. The area was abandoned after severe environment devastation by Oil Company. The major objective of the study was to determine how successions by exotic plants, impacted on the healthcare need of the people. Questionnaires, structured group – discussion and field survey were used to obtained primary data from the field, while internet and library provided the secondary data. Three 25 x 25 cm plots with replicates were designed for recording of plants of 1.0 m in height. ANOVA was employed to determine the relationship between coastal succession and healthcare challenges of the people. From the result, it was observed that succession by Nypa fruticans and the extinction of the original plants were evidence. The soil analysis shows that the nutrients were relatively normal for mangrove ecosystem. Tidal actions, deforestation, pollution, channelization, rise in sea level and flooding were factors that facilitates succession (Xs). Loss of medicinal plants, loss of herbs, low income, proximity to healthcare centres and drugs availability/affordability were healthcare challenges indices (Y). The regression of the Xs and Y variables were significant at 0.05% probability test. It was concluded that loss of medicinal plants, herbs, inaccessibility of health facilities and low income due to succession by exotic Nypa fruticans constituted a serious health problems to the coastal people.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Coral-reef Complexity on Species Richness and the Hierarchical Structuration of Species Abundances in Reef fish Communities: A Case Study in South-east Brazil

Jean Béguinot

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2019/v9i330098

Growing complexity of coral habitat is expected to increase resource partitioning among co-occurring reef fish and, thereby, reduce to some extent the mean competitive intensity. This will have associated consequences on the internal structuring of species in reef fish communities, in particular regarding species richness and evenness of species abundances. Accumulating dedicated case studies are necessary, however, to get further empirical confirmations. The present analysis aims to contribute in this respect, comparing reef fish communities associated to two coral-reef settings that markedly differ in their degree of morphological complexity, at Itaipu Sound, Brazil. As the available samplings of these communities remained incomplete, numerical extrapolations were implemented, thereby providing least-bias estimates for both total species richness and the exhaustive distribution of species abundances in both compared reef fish communities. As expected, total species richness increases with greater degree of coral habitat complexity, while the unevenness of species abundances decreases. This decrease in abundance unevenness – reflecting the corresponding relaxation of the mean level of competitive intensity – is partly due to the direct, negative influence of species richness on abundance unevenness, as an overall trend.  Beyond that, however, the relaxation is further strengthened by an additional “genuine” contribution – this time independent from the variation in species richness – and, as such, directly and idiosyncratically attached to the improvement in habitat complexity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ecological Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soil of an Open Dump along Old Ikare Road Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria

J. O. Olayinka-Olagunju, A. M. Olatunji-Ojo, A. Adejuyigbe, H. A. Ikuesan, S. E. Abubakar

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2019/v9i330099

Aims: To investigate the heavy metal concentrations in soil samples collected from an open dumpsite in a rural community (Aba Idi-Mangoro) in Owo, Ondo State and to compare the observed values with the regulatory limits. This study also aimed to determine the pollution levels using tools like contamination factor, pollution load index and geoaccumulation index.

Study Design: Field study design was use in this study.

Place and Duration of Study: Soil samples were collected from Aba Idi-Mangoro in Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria between July 2015 and February 2016 to represent the wet and dry seasons.

Methodology: A total of 96 soil samples were collected (6 samples on each visit and the site was visited twice a month). The samples were taken to the Prof. Julius Okojie Central Research Laboratory at the Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. In the laboratory, samples were air dried to remove the moisture. 2 g of the sampes were digested into HNO3, HCl, HF and HClO4, and AA Spectrophotometer was used to analyse the concentrations of the heavy metals.

Results: Out of the 8 heavy metals assessed, 6 were above the regulatory limits. The order of heavy metal concentrations for the wet season is: Fe>Mn>Zn>Cu>Pb>Ni>Cr>Co>Cd and the dry season is as follows: Fe>Zn>Mn>Pb>Cu>Ni>Co>Cr>Cd. When the mean concentrations of the samples for the wet season were compared to the dry season, Mn (0.009), Cd (0.035), Cr (0.044) and Co (0.014) differ significantly (p<0.05). No significant difference was found in Fe, Co, Ni and Zn. It was observed from the overall results that the concentrations of heavy metals were higher during the dry season than in the wet season. The contamination factor (CF), pollution load index and geo-accumulation index values of Fe was extremely high in the two seasons while it varies at different collection times for the other metals.

Conclusion: Due to the high presence of some of the heavy metals found in the soil, the study suggests that water and sediment samples from nearby river(s) within the community should also be examined.