Open Access Original Research Article

Population Dynamics, Diversity and Distribution of Freshwater Snails in Zobe Dam, Dutsin-Ma, North-Western Nigeria

Timothy Auta, Emmanuel Alkali, Elaigwu Audu Michael

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2018/v8i430078

Freshwater snails are crucial in assessing the ecological status of water bodies beside their economic, public and veterinary health importance. Hence, ecological studies pertaining to their abundance, diversity and distribution become paramount. A total of 1664 freshwater snails were sampled in Zobe Dam and the physicochemical parameters of the water body were analyzed on a monthly basis from April to September 2017 following standard protocols. Among the 1664 snails collected, 788 (47.94%) were Lymnaea natalensis, 492 (29.93%) were Bulinus trophicus and 364 (26.14%) were Bulinus forskalii. The study revealed monthly and spatial variation in the population of snails. Diversity and distribution of snails in Zobe Dam was influenced by pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity and turbidity. Coefficient of correlation (r) between snail species and the physicochemical parameters of water such as dissolved oxygen, turbidity and conductivity had a strong positive correlation with all the three species while pH was found to have a weak positive correlation with only Lymnaea natalensis. In conclusion, Lymnaea natalensis was the most abundant in population of snails inhabiting Zobe Dam and the population of snail varied with the physicochemical parameters of the water body.

Open Access Original Research Article

Wind Power Potential in Near Future Climate Scenarios: The Case for Burundi (East Africa)

Agnidé Emmanuel Lawin, Manirakiza Célestin, Lamboni Batablinlé

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2018/v8i430080

This paper assessed projected changes of wind power potential in near future climate scenarios over four sites from two contrasting regions of Burundi. Observed and MERRA-2 data sets were considered for the historical period 1981-2010, and a computed Multi-model ensemble for future projections data of eight Regional Climate Models under RCP 4.5 and 8.5 over the period 2011-2040 was used. Regional Climate Models were downscaled at local climate using Empirical Statistical Downscaling method. Mann-Kendall’s test was used for trend analysis over the historical period, while future changes in wind power density (WPD) quartiles were computed for each climate scenario by 2040. The findings revealed an increase in wind power potential all over the area studied with higher values during summer time. Indeed, over the period 2011-2040, the lowest WPD change is projected at Northern highlands (NHL) under RCP 4.5 with 27.03 W.m-2, while the highest WPD change of 46.34 W.m-2 is forecasted under RCP 8.5 at Southern Imbo plain (SIP). The month of August and September are expected to have higher WPD change in RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, respectively while January is projected to have the lowest WPD. Places near by the Lake Tanganyika are the most favorable areas for wind power generation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Economic Performance of Clarias gariepinus Juveniles Fed Separately with Factory and Farm-Made Diets

Raymond Odey Ajang, Ettah Akpang Ivon, Christopher Bassey Ndome, Elvis Monfung Ayim, Akaninyene Paul Joseph

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2018/v8i430081

Economic performance of using Coppens (commercial fish feed) and locally formulated feeds for Clarias gariepinus culture was studied. Forty juveniles averaging a total length of 9.15 ± 0.17cm and weight of 20.00 ± 2.58g were used and fed twice daily at 3% of their body weight. The weight gain (WG), growth rate (GR) and specific growth rate (SGR) varied significantly (p<0.05), while mean growth rate (MGR) varied insignificantly between treatment groups (p>0.05). Water parameters were at the required level. Cost of experimental feed per kilogram was highest in Coppens (₦733.33 ($2.156853)/kg) but lowest for chicken offal based diet (COBD) (₦267.00 ($0.785294)/kg). Feed consumption was higher for Coppens group (41650.00g ± 315.34) but lowest for COBD group (38276.00g ± 432.97). Cost of feeding (FC) was lower for COBD group (₦ 10219.69 ($30.057912) ±115.60) but higher in shrimp based diet (SBD) group (₦ 30,543.19 ($89.832912) ± 231.25). The ICA was higher in fish fed Coppens (₦ 1933.33 ($5.686265) ± 0.00) but lower for COBD group (₦1467.00 ($4.314706) ± 0.00). The NPV was higher in fish fed Coppens (₦ 440998.26 ($1297.053706) ±11636.93), but lower in COBD group (₦ 132916.16 ($390.929882) ± 3297.24). The PI was highest in Coppens group (₦14.44 ($0.042471) ± 0.35) but lowest in COBD group (₦ 13.01 ($0.038265) ± 0.43). The GP was higher in Coppens group (₦439064.93 ($1291.367441) ± 11636.93) but lower in COBD group (₦131449.16 ($386.615176) ± 3297.24). The IC was higher in Coppens group (₦228.10 ($0.670882) ± 6.02) but lower in COBD group (₦90.61 ($0.266500) ± 2.25). The BCR was higher in fish fed coppens (1.78±0.04) but lowest in COBD group (0.71±0.01). Feed consumed, FC, ICA, NPV, PI, GP and IC varied significantly (p<0.05), while BCR varied insignificantly (p>0.05) between treatment group. The SBD and COBD were as effective as Coppens in terms of growth performance and economic benefits. More researches should be carried out on the use of locally formulated feeds in aquaculture.

Open Access Review Article

Threats of Global Climate Change: A Review of the Driver to Multiples Environmental Degradation, Human Right Injustice and Unsustainable Development

Ayuk Macbert Nkongho, Cherabe Nchomba George

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2018/v8i430082

As we embrace the new millennium of the 21st century, the threats to the environment are unprecedented. However, none of these threats is as immense as global warming. Environmental management and conservation actions are floundering in the face of climate change as the latter poses a complex, bewildering array of impacts to the environment particularly on the state, individuals, communities, and cultures, as well as on natural resources (land, water, and air). Because of this, there is the need for the protection and promotion of climate change justice. The problem facing policy-makers and environmental stakeholders is how to plan within the context of global warming and to implement strategies for increasing the resistance and resilience of the environment to climate change impacts. This is because climate change is an issue of reality and is seemingly difficult to understand and to be plan for. It is, therefore, vital that a justice-centered approach is adopted to combat climate change. This article, therefore, seeks to analyze the causes and impacts of climate change, designs strategies and recommendations which is hope to address the adverse effects of climate change on human rights and the environment.