Open Access Original Research Article

Bacteriological Quality and Antibiogram of Isolates Obtained from Creek Town River, Odukpani L.G.A., Cross River State, Nigeria

F. C. Akubuenyi, J. U. Otu, R. Nyong

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2018/44505

The bacteriological quality and antibiogram of isolates from Creek Town River were investigated to determine the quality of the river water and sensitivity patterns of the bacterial isolates. The bacteriological assessment was studied using pour plate and membrane filtration techniques. There was significant difference (P=.05) in total heterotrophic bacterial count, E. coli and coliform counts. The total heterotrophic bacterial and total coliform counts were shown to be highest in the CTR3 (8.0x106cfu/ml) and CTR2 (3.0x105cfu/ml). The total E. coli counts ranged from 1.5x102cfu/ml to 5.8x102cfu/ml. Bacterial counts were higher than the acceptable limit of the WHO standards. The bacteria isolated and characterized included eleven (11) bacterial genera: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas spp., Bacillus spp., Enterobacter faecalis, Streptococcus spp., Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus spp., Shigella spp. and Citrobacter spp. Out of these organisms, Ent. faecalis, Staph. aureus, Klebsiella spp., E. coli and Proteus spp. are the most prevalent (100%) in the samples. The antibiogram result indicated that there was significant statistical variation (P=0.05) in the sensitivity profile of the test organisms to antibiotics. Moreover, E. coli and Proteus spp had the highest sensitivity of 90% while S. aureus had the lowest sensitivity of 30%.  Result also revealed that chloramphenicol was the most effective antibiotic with 100% sensitivity, and there was significant difference (P=.05) in the effective of each antibiotic against test organisms. These findings indicated that the water from Creek Town River was not suitable for direct human consumption and it poses a serious threat to the health of the consumers. Water treatment is therefore recommended before it can be used for domestic purposes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of Herbicides for Lawn Maintenance in South Western Nigeria: Benefits and Health Challenges

Y. I. Bulu

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2018/45440

There is an increasing shift from machete and machine-based lawn mowing to herbicide application in the south-western Nigeria. Although, people have speculated that this practice is less labour intensive and cheaper, the paucity of data on its implications on human health exists. This study seeks to provide baseline information on the health effects of this system of lawn maintenance. Structured questionnaire was randomly distributed to 313 head of households from Ondo and Osun States using multi-stage sampling technique. Parameters considered include frequency of usage, perception on activity and probable health symptoms. Data obtained were analysed by employing descriptive and inferential statistical methods. The study revealed that 88.2% of handlers were untrained and obtained information on usage and handling only from the manufacturers’ instructions. About 94% and 75% of the respondents in Ondo and Osun States respectively posited that the use of herbicide was faster than the conventional methods while 95% in Ondo and 73% in Osun affirmed that it was less energy-consuming. In addition, 69% of the respondents affirmed that the use of herbicides contributes to insect and pest control around homes. A number of respondents usually eat (22.4%), drink (18.5%), smoke cigarettes (18.9%) and make telephone calls (43.77%) during herbicide applications. Symptoms associated with herbicide use by respondents were fatigue (57.0%), eyes irritation (35.1%), skin irritation (31.2%) and nausea (29.7%).  This study, in addition to merits of use of herbicides, its negative impact on human health cannot be ignored in sustainable environmental management.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Assessment of Fish Processing, Packaging and Marketing Activities in Ibeno and Ikot-abasi Local Government Areas of Akwa-Ibom State, Nigeria

K. Omoruyi, O. J. Abolagba, A. E. Odiko, K. E. Owolabi, U. R. Mbossoh

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2018/31941

The survey assessed fish production and marketing activities in Ibeno (IB) and Ikot-Abasi (IK) Local Government Areas of Akwa-Ibom State, Nigeria. A purposive sampling was used to select the two local government areas because of the presence of high fishing activities in the areas and random sampling method was also used to select two markets each in the both Local Government Areas. The study was conducted with the aid of well-structured questionnaires which were administered to 180 processors. The results obtained revealed that the fish processors in both local government areas were dominated with females who were married and with primary education. Majority of the respondents fell between the age range of 20-29 years and got their source of finance from friends and relations. The processors got their source of fish for smoking from fishermen and women, had major occupation as fish marketing and fish processing, used mud oven half metal oil drum (IK 60.7%) and firewood (IB 44.6%) for their fish smoking. It was further revealed in this study that they processed fish at home during the day and had a major difficulty in controlling rodents, insects and breakage of fish during storage. Findings also showed that the processors used baskets (IB) and plastic drums (IK) to package their fishes and made highest sales and profit between October-December. However the large family size maintained by most of the fishermen and fish farmers adversely affected their economic growth and standard of living. Adequate provision of credit, social and fishing amenities including fish seeds and transport facilities in addition to keeping their family size small would enhance the socio-economic conditions of the fish processors in these areas. It is worthy to note that fish processing makes an important contribution to household food and financial security in all processing centres.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physicochemical Assessment of Some Pond Water in Patna (India)

Manish Kumar Kanth, Sushil Kumar Singh, Abhijeet Kashyap, Smita Shalini, Aprajita ., Rupam Kumari, Shivangni Singh, Ankita Kumari, Kumari Puja

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2018/45720

Physicochemical analysis of six ponds situated in different locations in the urban area of Patna, Bihar, India was investigated to evaluate the water quality of the pond. Samples were analyzed on various physicochemical parameters like Electrical Conductivity, Total Dissolved Solids, Alkalinity, Chloride, Total Hardness, orthophosphate, Dissolved oxygen and pH by using the standard methods and procedure. The observed value (average) of parameters recorded as Electrical Conductivity was 864.83 µS/cm, Total Dissolved Solids 565.83 mg/L, Alkalinity 303.33 mg/L, Chloride 70.00 mg/L, Total Hardness 260.66 mg/L, Orthophosphate 1.84 mg/L, Dissolved Oxygen 4.91 mg/L and pH 8.02. All pond’s water pH come under BIS standard. Except P6 all ponds had DO below the standards of BIS. Except P6, Orthophosphate of all samples were within standard value of the WHO. Increased level of TDS shown by (P1, P3, P4 and P6) from the standard value of BIS. Out of six samples, four had chloride value below the BIS standard. Total Hardness for P4 and P6 had value above the permissible limit of BIS standard. These six ponds are not suitable for domestic and drinking purpose, pre treatment of water is necessary. Result focused on regular monitoring of the water quality to detect contaminants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Inferring Total Species Richness and the Exhaustive Hierarchical Structuring of Species Abundances in Tropical Sea-stars Communities (Asteroidea), Using Numerical Extrapolation of Partial Inventories

Jean Béguinot

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-25
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2018/46272

Even when remaining substantially incomplete, the partial inventory of a species assemblage can provide much more information than could be expected first. Indeed, retrieving this information is made possible by applying a rigorous procedure of numerical extrapolation to the partial inventory.  This numerical extrapolation will deliver reliable estimates of the number of the still unrecorded species and, furthermore, of the distribution of abundances of these unrecorded species. As a result, the full range of the Species Abundance Distribution is finally made available, despite dealing with data from partial sampling only. In turn, this allows to address a series of descriptive and functional aspects of the internal organization of species assemblages, which otherwise would have required disposing of exhaustive samplings. The latter being, however, often impossible to achieve in practice. Fortunately, mathematic and algorithmic basis for a reliable numerical extrapolation of incomplete samplings have been developed recently, so that partial inventories no longer remain an obstacle to gain access to the true (total) species richness and the full-range pattern of hierarchical structuring of species abundances.

This approach is applied here to the previously reported partial samplings of two communities of tropical sea-stars associated to coral-reefs in the Central South China Sea. Among the main new results derived from the numerical extrapolations of these partial samplings, the following are highlighted:

-  the extrapolated true (total) species richness of each of the two studied communities largely exceed the recorded figures, thereby  confirming the limited completeness of these partial samplings: 53% and 67% completeness only;

- once properly completed by numerical extrapolation, the Species Abundance Distributions of both communities prove best fitting the “log-normal” than the “log-series” model, thereby suggesting that many independent factors (rather than only one dominant factor) contribute together to the hierarchical structuring of species abundances within these sea-stars communities;

- the intensity of the process of hierarchical structuration of species abundances proves being close to what would be obtained for the corresponding “broken-stick” model, which means a rather moderate level of structuration intensity, as compared to the range of values typically obtained for other kinds of marine invertebrates.