Open Access Short Research Article

Impact of Ecotourism on the Environment, Society and Culture of Ratargul Swamp Forest in Sylhet, Bangladesh

Kazi Moriom Jahan, Halima Akhter

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2018/45214

Aims: The aim of the paper is to know the type of ecotourism going on Ratargul swamp forest and its impact on the environment, society and culture of the area.

Study Design: This paper is a qualitative study and empirical research. It focuses on the change in the local environment and local people’s life due to ecotourism. For this purpose, interviews have been collected from people as a representative of the study population.

Place and Duration of Study: Ratargul Swamp Forest on Goainghat upazilla under Sylhet District, between August and September 2014.

Methodology: The respondent sample size was 100. Data has been collected from the local people by using structured observation, semi-structured interview and case study which were selected by stratified random sampling on the basis of education and profession.

Results: Observed evidence shows that foremost influence of ecotourism fall on economic aspect and environmental knowledge. Income level of 80% people has been increased after establishing ecotourism and 57% people have now changed their traditional occupation. Unplanned and unmanaged tourism may disrupt the life cycles of many aquatic biota that thrive there. Many tourists carry bottled water or juice, potato chips and other food stuffs while travelling the area and finally discard the resulting waste recklessly in the forest despite the use of warning signs by the forest department and other concerned authorities. More use of engine boats to carry the tourists in an undefined and multiple ways inside and around the forest also creating noise and polluting air and water there which are disturbing the life styles of the habitats inside the swamp forest to be settled like the previous stable and natural environment.

Conclusion: To save this swamp environment, government and forest department should make and implement some management policies which should be maintained strictly considering the opinion of the local people.

Open Access Original Research Article

Enumeration of Total Heterotrophic and Petroleum-degrading Bacteria Counts in Water and Sediments from Diobu Creek, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Amala, Smart Enoch

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2018/43545

Introduction: Bacteria play a significant role in the biochemical cycling of nitrogen, carbon, sulphur, and oxygen in aquatic environments. Hydrocarbons are released naturally from oil seeps and incidental discharges which represents a significant source of pollution. Estuarine systems are particularly susceptible to anthropogenic hydrocarbon contamination. Although oil contaminants are weathered by photo-oxidation and evaporation complete degradation is dependent on the metabolic activities of the microbial population inherent to the area.

Aim: This work aims to determine the total heterotrophic bacterial counts (THBCs) and petroleum-degrading bacteria counts (PDBCs) in water and sediment from Diobu creek.

Methodology: The THB and PDB in water and sediments from a polluted creek (Diobu Creek) were determined by serial dilution and plating on nutrient agar and petroleum-degrading bacteria agar and the isolated bacteria were identified.

Results: The THBCs in water were from 6.3 x 103 CFU/mL and 6.33 x103 CFU/mL, the highest THBCs were recorded in June (wet season). The THBCs in sediments was from 1.7 x 106 CFU/g to 1.85 x106 CFU/g. The highest THBCs were recorded in the month of June. The PDBCs in water was from 0.2 x 103 CFU/mL and 3.9 x103 CFU/mL, whereas the PDBCs in sediments ranged from 3.4 x106 to 9.5 x 106 CFU/g, high counts were obtained if sampling were carried out in rain or after rain. The bacteria isolated were Bacillus sp, Pseudomonas sp., Corynebacterium sp., Acenetobacter sp., Alkaligenes sp., Escherichia coli, Micrococcus, Klebsiella sp. and Flavobacterium sp.

Conclusions: The increased counts of PDBs in aquatic environments might be stimulated by the presence of pollutant hydrocarbons or chemicals discharged into the creek which was degradable by bacteria. The activity of PDBs in detoxifying polluted environments is the most eco-friendly.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study of Alishan Indigenous Tribal Tourism Development in Taiwan

Hsiao-Ming Chang, Chiu-Hui Hung, Chin-Lung Chou

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2018/45394

The study aims to analyse the tourism development planning of the Taiwan Government for Chinese tourists. Also, the tourists' perceptions about the development of indigenous people through the developing tribal tourism were examined.  The study was done at Chiayi City, Taiwan. The study was done on Alishan tribes, using qualitative research method to investigate the Chinese tourists' perceptions about tribal tourism with the empirical data. The results oshowed that the government's tourism planning has an important impact on the development of indigenous tribes; the decreasing Chinese tourists have a little impact on the tourism development of the Alishan tribe, and the developing tribal tourism has a positive impact on economics. Based on these findings, tribal tourism designing with the aid of government planning management for future research, is suggested directly.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparing the Complete Hierarchical Structuration of Species Abundances in Reef Fish Communities According to Coral Morphology, Using the Numerical Extrapolation of Only Incomplete Inventories

Jean Béguinot

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2018/45402

Numerous investigations have been conducted trying to unveil some possible correlations between coral-associated fish communities and different gross types of coral morphology that are assumed being differentially attractive to various kinds of fishes. Investigations in this respect are, yet, strewn with pitfalls and exposed to unexpected source of bias. One potential cause of bias comes from having to deal with substantially incomplete samplings, a situation practically unavoidable with species-rich communities having very uneven distribution of abundances. To overcome this difficulty, the numerical extrapolation of incompletely sampled communities offers a convenient solution, serving as a surrogate, when having no reasonable possibility to pursue samplings until reaching completion.

As an example, previous work came to the conclusion that relatively faint differences only distinguish the fish communities respectively associated with two distinctly different stony-coral morphologies, namely the regularly convex Diploria strigosa and the deeply lobed Orbicella annularis. This reported conclusion may be considered questionable, however, as it has been drawn from partial inventories only. Accordingly – given the practical impossibility to further improve the levels of completeness of the available samplings – a more soundly established analysis would require the implementation of a procedure of numerical extrapolation of the Species Abundance Distributions of both communities. After completion of the Species Abundance Distributions by numerical extrapolation, it then become clear that, in fact, substantial differences actually distinguish both fish communities, in terms of true (total) species richness and taxonomic distinctiveness. And, rather unexpectedly, it is the coral having lesser gross rugosity (Diploria strigosa) that hosts the most species-rich fish community. Also, the degree of unevenness of species abundances substantially differs between both communities while, however, the genuine intensity of the process of hierarchical structuring of species abundances remains practically unchanged. It is argued that this discrepancy between the unevenness pattern and the intensity of the underlying process actually results from the influence of species richness upon the degree of unevenness of species abundances – a purely mathematical influence, regrettably too often ignored and, indeed, devoid of biological significance.

On a more general methodological ground, this case study demonstrates, once more, the usefulness of numerical extrapolation when dealing with incomplete samplings, in order to avoid the potential risk of deriving erroneous conclusions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Levels, Spatial and Seasonal Distribution of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in Water, Sediments and Sarotherodon melanotheron from Ologe Lagoon

S. O. Umulor, H. E. Obanya, N. H. Amaeze, C. U. Okoroafor

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2018/45308

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are chemical additives of increasing concern in water bodies associated with industrial and urban areas. In this study, they were quantified in sediments, surface water and Black Chin Tilapia, Sarotherodon melanotheron from three sampling zones of Ologe Lagoon, Nigeria. The lagoon receives effluents and runoffs from the neighbouring industrial town of Agbara. Quantification of PBDE congeners in the samples was done using a gas chromatograph coupled electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Sediment ∑PBDEs levels of 0.05±0.006 to 0.09±0.006 ng/g were below Environment Canada’s (EC’s) safe limit (6124 ng/g) while levels in water ranged from 0.01±0.003 to 0.02±0.005 mg/L and were above EC’s safe limit (0.0002 mg/L). ∑PBDEs levels in the Tilapia ranged from 0.06±0.01 to 0.12±0.01 ng/g and were below EC’s safe limit (631 ng/g). There was no significant (P > 0.05) seasonal variation of ∑PBDEs concentrations in the assessed fish. The low levels of PBDEs in Sarotherodon melanotheron suggest that the fish are safe for consumption. However, there is a need for continuous efforts to improve industrial effluents treatment and manage urban surface run-offs into water bodies in order to avoid potentially catastrophic levels of PBDEs  in urban water bodies.