Open Access Short Research Article
Aims: This study was undertaken to document the birds that act as bioindicators of weather forecasting among the Sumi tribe of Nagaland, India.
Study Design: The study was carried out using a qualitative design.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in 4 villages of the Zunheboto district- Shiyepu, Sukhalu, Natha old and Natha new. It was conducted for a period of 2 years, i.e., 2016-2018.
Methodology: Convenient and snowball sampling were used. Information was gathered from 200 respondents, through In-depth interviews and focus group discussions, targeting elders (women and men) above 40 years of age. The respondents included elders, farmers, hunters, folk tellers and bards who also shared their stories from different events of observation and decades of experience. Questionnaires were prepared and administered by the researcher while a topic guide was also used for the focus group discussions.
Results: The study listed few birds and their significance in weather prediction by the Sumi tribe of Nagaland, India. The singing of cuckoo (Cuculidae) means it is time to start sowing seeds in the fields; possibility of rainfall through the singing of partridge (Perdix perdix); flight of yellow-throated laughing thrust (Garrulax galbanus) indicating fair weather or rain/storm; migration of Amur Falcon (Falco amurensis) to Nagaland indicating the coming of colder season; prediction of floods through the height of birds’ nest- long-tailed wren babbler (Spelaeornis chocolatinus) and rusty-capped fulvetta (Alcippe dubia) and onset of warmer season (rainy season) through the abundance of sparrows (Passeridae); the perching behaviour of grey-crowned warbler (Seicercus tephrocephalus) and bamboo partridge (Bambusicola fytchii) predicting fair or adverse weather and the behaviour of domesticated chickens (Gallus gallus) searching for food during rain means the rainfall will continue.
Open Access Original Research Article
There is limited information available on the agrobiodiversity of homegardens in Brazil. Thus research was initiated to investigate this aspect in the state of Maranhão (Brazil) during 2016. Twenty five homegardens were visited, with 105 specimens, distributed among 47 genera and 29 families being catalogued. The families with the most representative species were Rubiaceae, Malvaceae and Lamiaceae, with four species each, followed by the Solanaceae, Euphorbiaceae (three species each), Myrtaceae, Crassulaceae, Anacardiaceae (two species each), other families had one species each. This study further elucidated how much households use these species and found that, 52% are used for food, 35% for medicinal and 13% for ornamental use. It is mostly women who were the primary care takers of the agroforest homegardens, as they had a good working knowledge of cultivation and garden maintenance in general. The survey also revealed that the homegardens had a strong cultural character, thus highlighting their value as an important community resource for the creation and transmission of traditional knowledge, thus serving as a source of information management for the preservation of community identity.
Open Access Original Research Article
The demand and use for energy is increasing continuously due to industrialisation, desertification, cost of electricity, depletion of petroleum resources, human population and increasing commercial activities. The basic and traditional sources of energy has been petroleum resources, natural gas, coal, hydro and nuclear, however, the major disadvantage of using petroleum based fuel is atmospheric pollution due to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions caused by inefficient burettes, hence inefficient indiscriminate burning of enormous amount of petroleum diesel has increased CO2 level in the atmosphere which traps and prevent the heat from going to the outer atmosphere, thereby causing global warming. Algae were grown in waste and fresh water with NPK added to the tap water. The biodiesel was produced through the process of extraction, heating and transesterification. NaOH as a catalyst with methanol and hexane were added The result of this research revealed that 33% and 29% of was extracted from 11.5 grams 10.5 grams from the dry weight of algae from waste and fresh water respectively. It can be concluded from the result of this research that algae is a potential alternative source of biodiesel compared to oil from seeds. Biodiesel from algae is a perfect replacement or alternative to petroleum diesel. This is because algae are found everywhere, easy to cultivate in a small pond, and it is more effective than vegetable oil.
Open Access Original Research Article
The present paper embodies the possible impact of climate change and upstream discharge on the Passur River water at the Mongla point of Khulna division, south-western part of Bangladesh. The secondary data have been gathered from different sources and were analysed to understand the aforementioned situation. To establish the relationship, the long-term salinity data (1962-2015) have been taken into account as the dependent variable with other climatic variables’ viz., temperature, rainfall, river discharge, tide level and also sea level change. The salinity of the Passur River increased persistently at a rate of 0.13 ppt/year from 1962 to 2015. Dramatic changes of salinity have been audited after the construction of Farakka barrage (1975), which apparently increased from 0.35 ppt to 7.05 ppt in 2015. A continuously increasing relation has been observed in salinity with both the temperature and the position of sea level. Notwithstanding the inconsistency of rainfall data, an inverse relation was also noticed between salinity and rainfall, i.e., salinity increases with the decrease in rainfall. The relation between freshwater discharge at the Hardinge Bridge Point of the Ganges River and subsequent salinity in the Passur River has been compared establishing that the long-term gradual and abrupt decrease in discharge has a direct impact on the increasing trend of the salinity of this River. On the basis of foregoing results and observations, an attempt has been made to generate an equation that may predict the future scenarios of the salinity, temperature and sea level changes for 2050. Nevertheless, a minor disparity in the data of various parameters, it may be concluded that the salinity, temperature and the sea level will be increased significantly in the near future. From the present findings, an immediate measure has to be taken to overcome the possible adverse impacts of the inevitable climate change.
Open Access Review Article
In this paper, it is tried to reveal the changes in the ecosystem and biodiversity of a unique wetland known as Tanguar Haor. The global importance of this wetland has made a declaration as the Second Ramsar Site of Bangladesh in 2000. On the other hand, it is also recognised as an Ecologically Critical Area due to gradually overexploitation and degradation consequences of its natural resources. It consists of diverse types of floral and faunal remains including fish species, wetland plant species, amphibians, reptiles, bird species and mammals. The fisheries, forest and land are the main resources of this critical wetland ecosystem. But unsustainable extraction and utilisation of its natural resources are vital consequences to threatening the haor ecosystem. Over the time, the ecological balances and biodiversity have been changed due to the effects of the flash flood, reduction of forest resource, extension of agricultural land, community control and exploitation, soil erosion, forest degradation, habitat degradation, water imbalance, unbalanced human interference, illegal poaching and government participation in resource management. This study focuses on evaluating the nature, ecological setting, ecosystem and biodiversity, rate of wetland changes, resource degradation and how these factors make an impact on people's livelihood and lifestyle in that area. Following a content analysis of past and recent literature, reports, and empirical studies, the arguments illustrate the typical landscape changes over last 60 years and thus it will play a significant role for policy formulation and implementation to save the biodiversity and endangered ecosystem of Tanguar Haor in the long-run.