Open Access Original Research Article

Geospatial Variability and Ecological Amplitudes of Plants along Nutrient Gradients in Imo River Wetland

F. O. Ogbemudia, R. E. Ita, T. E. Philips

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2018/42881

This study assessed the geospatial variability and ecological amplitudes of plants along nutrient gradients in Imo River Wetland. Systematic sampling was employed for the vegetation and soil using ten 10 m x 10 m quadrat spaced at 20 m interval along established belt transects. Soil samples were obtained using a soil auger at two rooting depths (0 – 15 cm and 15 – 30 cm) and were analyzed using standardized methods. Eight (8) species belonging to six (6) families were found. Nypa fruticans was the most dominant (541.78±155.90 st/ha) and frequent (75%) species while Phoenix reclinata, Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa and Pandanus candelabrum were the species with the least frequency of 25%, respectively. Laguncularia racemosa also had the least density value of 25.00±0.00 st/ha. The ecological amplitudes showed that species responded differently to nutrients and environmental gradients. Nypa fruticans showed peak density values at pH and available phosphorus values of log 1.64 and log 0.77 mg/kg respectively. Phoenix reclinata and Rhizophora mangle showed a strong affinity for organic carbon and total nitrogen reaching peak density values at log 2.69% and log – 0.99%, respectively. Nypa fruticans recorded wide adaptability with increasing Ca concentration reaching a peak density value at log 2.44 cmol/kg. Generally, Nypa fruticans was the most successful of all species having recorded the highest density values at different nutrient gradients. By and large, this study showed overlapping occurrences of species in response to varying levels of nutrients across the plots and lends credence to wetland conservation and appropriate environmental monitoring against invasive species.


Open Access Original Research Article

Check List and Population Densities of Mammals in the University of Agriculture Makurdi Wildlife Park, Benue State, Nigeria

J. A. Ityavyar, E. M. Ityavyar, C. Akosim

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2018/43871

Appraisal of fauna species which form an integral part of ecology, in protected based areas is necessary before any meaningful conservation work can commence. This study was undertaken in the wildlife park of the University of Agriculture, Makurdi, to produce the species list and determine the population density of mammals in the park. The species list was obtained using both direct and indirect methods while density of mammals were determined using the kings census method. The park was stratified into two vegetations types, the riparian and woody vegetations. Result obtained showed that 19 species of mammals were identified while the density of some of them ranged from 1.0/km2 to 10.0/km2 in both the riparian and woody vegetations in the park. The park supports unique fauna species making it significant regarding conservation and scientific interest and has to be protected through fencing, conservation awareness and community participation to conserve the current species and enhanced its range productivity.


Open Access Original Research Article

Floristic Profile of Selected Ponds in Sub-Urban District of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

E. D. Anwana, R. E. Ita

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2018/43264

Floristic population around and within selected ponds of a sub-urban area in Akwa Ibom State was examined. Soil physical and soil chemistry were determined to ascertain influences on floristic distribution pattern. Twenty five (25) plant species were identified belonging to seventeen (17) families. Alchornea cordifolia was the most abundant species with the density value of 2666.67±100.32 st/ha while Crinum sp. had the least density value of 33.33±10.25 st/ha. Chromolaena odorata and Pteridium aquilinum had the highest frequency of occurrence of 75%, respectively. In terms of height, Elaeis guineensis was the tallest species (8.00±2.08 m) while the shortest species were Clappertonia ficifolia (1.20±0.11 m) and Cnestis ferruginea (1.20±0.02 m). Correlation analysis showed significant relationship between plant distribution and soil properties. Negative relationships showed limiting nutrient levels while positive showed optimum nutrient levels. Although, results showed a clear relationship between soil properties and type of flora around the study area, yet, present floristic population noted points to the rapid incursion of human activities and influence within and outside the district landscapes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Firewood Utilisation and Its Implication on Trees around Mopipi Village in Boteti Sub-District of Botswana

Wanda N. Mphinyane, Lawrence K. Akanyang, Kutlwano Mulale, Fritz Van Deventer, Lapologang Magole, Jeremy S. Perkins, Reuben J. Sebego, Julius R. Atlhopheng, Raban Chanda

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2018/42471

A household survey was done to assess the number of people using firewood in order to determine the amount of available firewood, its rate of utilisation and the distance travelled per selected household. There are a total of 383 households in Mopipi village with an average household size of eight (8) people. A sample size of seventy-nine (79) households were interviewed for the study on their use of fuelwood. Four transects of 14 km radiating from the Mopipi village were used to measure the biomass of both live and dead trees. Five sampling points at different distances along the transect were located. At each sampling point, three 50m x 10m quadrats were demarcated. Firewood biomass was determined by measuring the basal area at ankle height and adjusted by using regression curves formulae. Biomass of live trees was dominated by Colophospermum mopane woodlands, but its standing dead wood was only available at further distances. Most households gathered firewood by head-loads within a range of 4-6 km from the village. Trade-offs were clearly involved when people collected less preferred species at near distances. Consumption rate per household was estimated at 10 kg per day per household. Reasonable biomass of live trees occurred near the village, concurring with household claims that they do not chop live trees.


Open Access Original Research Article

Establishing Risk Assessment from Reclaimed Nekede Mechanic Village Owerri, Nigeria

A. U. Nkwoada, C. O. Alisa, C. M. Amakom, C. K. Enenebeaku

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2018/43281

The current resettlement of Nekede Auto-Mechanic village by Imo State government of Nigeria created a sparse piece of land awaiting government utilization. Risk assessment was carried out on the land using existing boreholes and soil to determine land utilization potential. Analysis of the physicochemical water parameters showed that there was no contamination of boreholes. The high value of COD correlated with the high levels of Fe in soil and water samples. Heavy metals concentrations showed that Fe was very much present in the soil while Pb, Cd and Cu had reduced concentrations. Risk assessment for the soil samples showed that Fe had the highest mean and median value. The highest mean value for water was Cu metal. Highest variance value was Cu in soil while Pb had the lowest value in water. Hazard quotient of water samples showed that hazards existed for Cd, Cu and Pb but at a moderate level for Fe. Estimated daily/weekly water intake values were all below WHO/FAO standards. The soil enrichment factor showed no enrichment for Pb, minimal enrichment for Cd, moderate enrichment for Cu and significant contamination for Fe. Ecological risk assessments for the heavy metals were at low ecological risk. Potential ecological index depicts Fe and Cd at a considerable level of ecological risk. Likewise, contaminants existed at the nearby Otamiri river due to dredging and nearby waste dumps. The anthropogenic activity at the Otamiri river posed a serious environmental concern if not controlled and reclaimed. Hence, the reclamation of Nekede auto mechanic village will not be suitable for agricultural or recreational purposes.