Open Access Original Research Article

Approaches and Constraints for Community Participation in Wildlife Conservation: A Case Study of the Rungwa Game Reserve in the Manyoni District

Kileti V. Tarimo, Fadhili H. Mgumia

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2018/41704

The study was tailored to assess the approaches and constraints for community participation in wildlife conservation in the Rungwa Game Reserve particularly in the Rungwa and Mwamagembe villages in the Manyoni District. Specifically, the study focused on the approaches used for community participation and constraints facing communities that participate in wildlife conservation. A sample size of 98 respondents was involved in the study. Data were collected using questionnaire surveys, key informant interviews, field observations, focus group discussions and document reviews. Data were analyzed with Statistical Product Service Solution (IBM-SPSS20). The results were produced in the form of tables, mean/averages, frequencies, plates/photographs, and figures. The communities’ participation observations in wildlife conservation revealed that publicity and community based conservation were the main approaches used in the studied area. Local community argued that the Rungwa Game Reserves inadequately provided conservation education to adjacent villages. The failure of the game reserve to allow meaningful local participation lead to hatred, resentment, and illegal off take of natural resources from the game reserve, resulting in poor wildlife conservation.


Open Access Original Research Article

Threats and Conservation Incentives for Sustainable Management of South West Mau Forest, Kenya

Clifford Kipngeno Langat, Eric Koech, Andrew Kiplagat, Yuda Odongo Owino

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2018/42130

South West Mau Forests (SWMF) is an important resource to Kenya and beyond. Despite its importance, there is an imminent anthropogenic threat to its conservation which has altered its current importance. There is a need for urgent implementation of sound and feasible forest conservation strategies with a clear understanding of incentives for sustainable forest conservation. This study was therefore carried out to identify threats to SWMF conservation and to determine incentives for its sustainable management. Purposive and systematically sampling techniques were used to identify study sites. Three transects were laid parallel to forest edge from which nine sites were selected. Households were identified using simple random sampling and a total of 225 questionnaires administered. Kruskal Wallis Test as provided in SPSS Version 12 package was used to test significant differences among forest threats.  Chi-square (X2) test was used to test for overall significant difference between incentives. Significant test levels were expressed at P < 0.05.  Kruskal Wallis Test demonstrated that there was a significant difference (P < 0.001) between transects at different distances from the forest edge on threats to forest conservation. A pairwise analysis using the Man Whitney U Test further demonstrated that there were more significant (P  < 0.05) threats to forests at transects 0-2 Km  than at over 5 Km from the edge of the forest with respect to encroachment, logging, charcoal production, grazing,  poaching, and poor agricultural practices. Encroachment (52%), logging (49%), poaching of forest products (40%), grazing (35%) and cultivation (27%) posed threats to the conservation of the forest. The main incentives from the forest were firewood (53%), rain (47%), grazing (46%), vegetables (22%), building materials (17%), honey (14%), and medicine (11%). The local community needs to be involved in sharing of benefits accruing from forest conservation so as to help in sustainable forest conservation.


Open Access Original Research Article

Removal of Heavy Metals Cd (II), Fe (III) and Ni (II), from Aqueous Solutions by Natural (Clinoptilolite) Zeolites and Application to Industrial Wastewater

Hoda Abd El-Azim, Fekry A. Mourad

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2018/41004

The adsorption mechanism of Cd, Fe, and Ni, ions on natural (clinoptilolite) zeolites, a regional low-cost natural available adsorbent was studied in a batch adsorption system. The effect of several parameters such as contact time, zeolite dose, particle size, the effect of pH, and initial concentration of metal ions in the adsorption process was estimated. The optimum adsorption was found to occur at pH 6.0, adsorbent dose 1.0 g/L, and initial concentration 2, 20 and 10 mg/L for Cd, Fe, and Ni, respectively. The adsorption efficiency also increases with decreasing particle size of zeolites and the effect of retention time on adsorption ratio shows that 80% of the Cd, Fe, and Ni, are adsorbed by zeolite during first 120 minutes. Under these optimum conditions, the removal efficiency was 78.8, 89.1, and 65.5% of Cd+2, Fe+3 and Ni+2, ions, respectively. Sorption data have been interpreted in terms of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption efficiency of heavy metals in industrial wastewater as application mode was also investigated using zeolites and these results showed that natural zeolites hold great potential to remove cationic heavy metal species from industrial wastewater and confirms the potential use of zeolite for the removal of heavy metals from industrial wastewater via adsorption. It was concluded that zeolite is very promising for the removal of metal ions from aqueous solution and hence we encourage the utilization of zeolites in environmental applications.


Open Access Original Research Article

Community Attitude and Religious Bonding in Human-Wildlife Conflict Mitigation: A Study of Kilpura-Khatima-Surai Corridor, Terai Arc Landscape, India

Khima Nand Balodi, Meraj Anwar

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2018/41957

Religious and cultural beliefs among the communities residing on the edge of forests                             areas are important in developing human-wildlife conflict mitigation measures and                           conservation of various endangered species. Kilpura-Khatima-Surai wildlife corridor is                                an important linkage between national and trans-boundary wildlife habitats. The present                        study was conducted to understand the people attitude toward wildlife conservation through structured questionnaire survey of households in Terai Arc Landscape. Our finding reveals that though the wildlife corridor has been severely altered due to various anthropogenic activities, however, the mythological understanding of the inhabiting community has a major role in driving the attitude toward wildlife conservation. These profound beliefs constitute flexible behaviour towards a particular wild animal even if they are facing conflicts with them. Such understanding would be important to implement community based conservation and management inputs, as well as in achieving the desired conservation goals.


Open Access Original Research Article

Papilionoideae of an Area of Vegetation in Northeast from Brazil

Gustavo da Silva Gomes, Guilherme Sousa Silva, Domingos Lucas dos Santos Silva, Regigláucia Rodrigues Oliveira, Paula Regina Pereira Martins, Maria de Fátima Veras Araújo, Gonçalo Mendes da Conceição

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2018/42483

The research had as objective to carry out taxonomic treatment of the subfamily Papilionoideae (Fabaceae) for a fragment of Cerrado in Northeast of Brazil. For the knowledge of the plant species, were carried monthly in a field in a period from September 2016 to February 2017. The botanical material was collected at the reproductive stage and identified by comparison with type material, specialised bibliography, virtual herbarium and taxonomic keys. Were found 21 species, distributed in 14 genera. The study presents a description, geographic distribution and phytogeographical domain for each species and key identification of the taxa. The species listed have a wide geographic distribution in Brazil, occurring in several phytogeographic domains. Thus, the research contributed to the knowledge of the species of Fabaceae, which can be used in other scientific areas, as well as, help in the elaboration of the management plan and the knowledge on the conservation status of the species.


Open Access Original Research Article

Amino Acids Content of Different Plants from South Sinai as Affected by Different Habitat Conditions

Ahmed Mandouh Kamel, Karima Mohamed El-Absy

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ajee/2018/v7i130096

The objectives of this work were to determine the amino acids contents of ecophysiologically different plants on a seasonal basis and the relationship among amino acids and soil properties. The plant species investigated were Zilla spinosa and Peganum harmala in the spring and autumn seasons during Wadi El-Arbaeen (WAR) and Wadi Ghrandal (WGH). The values of pH and electric conductivity (EC) of soil solutions at the up, mid and down streams were higher in WGH than in WAR, while unlike of mineral analysis i.e., S-, Cl-, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+. Amino acids content in the two studied species were different in the spring and autumn seasons under the two locations. According to the rank method, the amino acids (proline, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, leucine, isoleucine and alanine) concentrations of the autumn season were greater than those of the spring season in Z. spinosa under WAR, and in P. harmala in WAR and WGH., while the spring season were higher than autumn season in Z. spinosa under WGH. While the amino acids histidine, cysteine and methionine were the least. Based on PCA, the amino acids can be classified into four groups. The amino acids i.e. aspartic acid, cysteine, methionine, phenylalanine, tryptophan  and proline were positively correlated with pH, K+, Na+, S-, Ca2+, Cl-, EC and Mg2+ in the spring and autumn seasons in WAR. On the other hand, the amino acids aspartic acid, methionine and isoleucine with pH, K+, Na+, water content (WC) and EC, as well as the amino acid tryptophan  with S-, Cl- and Ca2+ showed positive correlation in the spring and autumn seasons in WGH. It seemed that the Z. spinosa and P. harmala were adapted  with drought conditions in WAR and WGH.