Open Access Method Article

Numerical Extrapolation of the Species Abundance Distribution Unveils the True Species Richness and the Hierarchical Structuring of a Partially Sampled Marine Gastropod Community in the Andaman Islands (India)

Jean Béguinot

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-23
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2018/41293

Even when it remains substantially incomplete, the partial inventory of a species assemblage can provide much more information than could be expected at first. This can be achieved by applying a rigorous numerical extrapolation procedure that fully extends the incomplete sampling in numerical terms and, thereby, provides reliable estimates regarding not only the number but also the distribution of abundances for the whole set of the undetected species. As a result, this makes available the full range of the Species Abundance Distribution of the yet partially sampled assemblage and, thus, allows to address a series of interesting issues regarding the process and pattern of the hierarchical structuring of species abundances within the studied assemblage of species. Moreover, the same kind of numerical extrapolation may be applied separately to each subset of species, within the whole assemblage, that may have relevant interest (taxonomic subgroups, feeding guilds, etc…). Thus, deconstructing the Species Abundance Distribution can provide further detailed insights into the functional organisation of the studied assemblage.

The mathematical and algorithmic basis for this extrapolating procedure has been developed recently, to be applied to the numerical extension of both the Species Accumulation Curve and the Species Abundance Distribution.

The wide potential interest of this new methodological approach, when having to deal with substantially incomplete inventories of species (which is doomed to become inevitable with increasingly species-rich assemblages), is illustrated by a detailed case study of a marine gastropod assemblage on rocky shore under tropical climate.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Recharge and Discharge Areas in Abakiliki and Environs Using Hydrologic Parameters in Shallow Wells

B. E. B. Akudinobi, P. N. Obasi, O. C. Akakuru

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2018/40954

This research assessed the recharge and discharge areas in Abakiliki and environs to determine the direction of groundwater movement. Three major stages of procedures were used in this research: data collection, processing, and interpretation. With the aid of a water level indicator, the static water level in hand-dug wells was measured and recorded. The Global positioning system (GPS) was used to measure the longitude, latitude and the surface elevations concerning the mean sea level to the lowest surface of the earth. The surface elevation at different points varied considerably. The data were collected from one hundred and forty-three (143) wells at different locations in the mapped area which are: Kpirikpiri, Abakaliki, Agbaja, ObubraAmachi, Nkwagu, Azuiyiokwu, Ekaeru Inyimagu and were contoured. From the result, groundwater moves from points P1 to P3 with highest hydraulic head or elevation in South of the study area comprising: Abakaliki, Agbaja, and Umuoghara and flows from point D1 to D3 Northeastward of the study area passing through Azuiyiokwu ,Ekaeru - Inyimagu and Ndiechi - Igbeagu. The study recommends among others, that boreholes for potable water supply should be sited in the Southern or Northwestern region of the area, since they are the recharge areas and not within the Northeastern part of the region, since they are the discharge areas; also that dumpsites should be sited within the Northeastern part of the region since contaminant moves in the direction of groundwater flow and not in the Southern or Northwestern part of the regions in order to minimize groundwater contamination by dumpsites.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Sanitation and Water Supply Coverage in a Rural Community of Kogi State, Nigeria

M. I. Alfa, M. A. Ajibike, R. E. Daffi

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2018/41602

In order to assess the sanitation and water supply coverage in a rural community of Kogi State, Nigeria as a knowledge base for the actualization of the Sustainable Development Goals 6.1 and 6.2, a cross-sectional study was carried out amongst 325 household heads in Oforachi community using the quantitative method of data collection. The Field survey was carried out between October and December, 2017. All households who gave consent to participate in the study were included while those who declined consent were excluded. The results were presented using descriptive statistics (frequencies, percentages, means and standard deviations) while, student’s t-test was used to assess whether the household’s choice of water source is connected to the nearness of the source to them or not. This was done at 95% Confidence Level using STATA/SE 13.1 Statistical Software. The results showed that 34.77% of the households had improved sanitation facilities, 17.23% had unimproved facilities while 48 percent defecate in the open fields and bushes. More so, only 43.74% of respondents used water from the central boreholes while, the remaining 56.26% drink water from the River. The P-value (P = .87) and the 95% confidence interval (-0.0826748 to 0.0703671) obtained suggest that a relationship exist between the closest water source to the households and their choice. The study recommends that Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) be triggered within the community to reduce the open defecation extent while efforts should be made by stakeholders to increase the availability of safe water supply.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Botanical Composition of Fabaceae Family in the Brazilian Northeast, Maranhão, Brazil

Gustavo da Silva Gomes, Guilherme Sousa Silva, Domingos Lucas dos Santos Silva, Regiglaucia Rodrigues de Oliveira, Gonçalo Mendes da Conceição

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2018/41207

Fabaceae, one of the most diverse families in the world, recognized for its ecological and economic potential; divided into six subfamilies (Caesalpinioideae, Cercidoideae, Detarioideae, Dialioideae, Duparquetioideae) In Brazil, it is the largest botanical family found in all the ecosystems (Amazon and Atlantic Forest, Caatinga, Cerrado, Pantanal and Pampa). The Present investigation identified 22 species, distributed in 14 genera and four subfamilies.  Mimosa was the most representative genus, with five sorts, followed by Bauhinia with three and Aeschynomene with two, as to the habit, and 12 species considered shrubs. The composition shown were the floristic list, that help in understanding of plant species present in ecosystems investigated and filling gaps in the Brazilian´s Northeast biodiversity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Evaluation of Microbial Diversity of Epipellic and Benthic Sediments using Cultural and Metagenomics Techniques

U. O. Edet, S. P. Antai, A. D. Asitok, A. A. Brooks

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2018/41431

Introduction: Studies have shown that molecular techniques are better in describing microbial diversity in various ecosystems than cultural techniques. The study was aimed at comparative evaluation of the microbial diversity of benthic and epipellic sediments using cultural and metagenomics techniques.

Methodology: Benthic and epipellic sediments were collected in triplicates from five locations from the Iko River estuary in Eastern Obolo. Total heterotrophic bacterial and fungal counts, and characterization of microbial isolates were done using the standard microbiological technique. Metagenomic DNA was extracted using ZYMO soil DNA extraction Kit (Model D601, Zymo Research, USA). Following extraction and amplification, the resulting DNA was sequenced using next-generation sequence on Miseq Illumina platform. Data from cultured based techniques were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and student t-test while resulting metagenomic data were analyzed using web-based bioinformatics tools.

Results: Bacteria and fungi counts ranged from 1.08 to 1.60 (x 106 CFU/g) and 0.10 to 2.2 (x 103 CFU/g) with benthic sediments having the highest abundance in both cases. Compared to cultural techniques which captured only bacterial and fungal kingdoms, metagenomics captured archaea, protozoa, viruses, plantae, and unknown kingdoms. Furthermore, 17 phyla were obtained using metagenomics compared to 3 phyla captured by cultural techniques. A total of 61 isolates were recovered spread across various genera (10 from benthic and 11 from epipellic). Most common isolates in both samples were Bacillus, Micrococcus and Pseudomonas. Although a total of 300 species were identified using metagenomics, about 78.92% and 71.19% of the species were uncultured bacterium for benthic and epipellic sediments, respectively. Furthermore, the species were dominated with species involved in nutrient recycling such as Thiobacillus prosperus, Sulfurimonas species and Marinobacterium nitratireducens. Surprisingly, 15(0.15%) of the reads showed sequence similar to Influenza A virus (H3N6) viral cRNA with accession number LC053487.1.

Conclusion: The results show that metagenomic assessment is better in capturing the bacterial diversity of sediment than cultural methods.