Open Access Original Research Article

Coastal Protection Measures – Case of Small Island Developing States to Address Sea-level Rise

Poh Poh Wong

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2018/41019

Small Island Developing States are considered as one of most severely affected by climate change and sea-level rise. Some atoll nations would virtually disappear with a sea-level rise of one metre. The objective is to derive a first-cut classification of coastal protection technology for the Small Island Developing States to address sea-level rise. First, an assessment is made of the existing and future adaptation measures to sea-level rise in the latest 35 English-language National Communications submitted by the Small Island Developing States to the UNFCCC. Next, a wide variety of adaptation measures is culled from key coastal engineering manuals and other sources with a focus on more innovative tools and ideas beyond the traditional hard and soft measures. This yielded several possible adaptation tools that could be used by the Small Island Developing States, and with further research, more tools could be applied. In conclusion, a first-cut classification of coastal protection technology is proposed for the Small Island Developing States to address sea-level rise. The resulting table shows eight categories graded from the usual hard and soft measures to new and innovative ideas.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Regional Climate Models Projections of Wind Speed in Morocco for Period 2020-2050

Y. El Hadri, V. Khokhlov, M. Slizhe

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2018/41112

The Moroccan energy system is highly dependent on external energy markets. Therefore, the current renewable energy strategy is focused on deployment of large-scale renewable technology projects. Morocco has abundant wind resources. Estimations made by developing organizations in Morocco which quantify the economic and technical potential of wind energy in Morocco with the amount of 26 GW.

Aims: This study aims to determine the first approximation in the areas of Morocco which are prospective for the development of wind energy in period for 2020-2050.

Place and Duration of Study: Odessa State Environmental University between September 2017 to March 2018.

Methodology: In this particular study the user data from regional climate modeling with a high spatial resolution of the project CORDEX has been estimated. Simulations of local climate models provide opportunities for a better understanding of atmospheric processes in the region and their possible future change. In this study use of regional climate models simulate the RCP of 4.5 scenarios for the Africa region, which is presented in a rectangular coordinate system with a spatial resolution of ≈ 44 km. As a result of the regional climate model calculation, the mean monthly   Near-Surface Wind Speed (10-meter Wind Speed) values from 2020-2050 for the territory of Morocco.

Results: Regional climate models simulations showed that in Morocco will be dominated by gentle and moderate winds, with a mean speed of 4-6 m/s, and only in the southern part of the Atlantic coast its values can reach 7-9 m/s. The smallest values of the mean wind speed are predicted in Fez − Meknes and Beni-Mellal − Henifra regions, and will be about 3 m/s; the highest values can reach 9 m/s on the Atlantic coast to the south of Dakhla village. An analysis showed that in the future some characters of annual course, in general, will have two types.

Conclusion: The most favorable for the development of wind energy will be areas located on the shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean and in the southern part Morocco.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Hydrogeomorphologic and Limnologic Characteristics of Goro Dong (Lake) in Numan Area, Adamawa State, Northeastern Nigeria

Ezekiel Yonnana, Aminu Raji, Alikidon Ambrose Voh (jr)

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2018/41171

This paper examines some hydrogeomorphic and limnologic characteristics of Goro Dong - A fluviatile lake, as a contributory objective towards conservation and sustainable use of fluviatile lakes and ponds resources in Numan Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Hydrogeomorphic Characteristics of the lake have been examined by an integrated approach involving the applications of Hydrographic Survey, Geographic Information System (GIS) and Mathematical Computations. Site survey and laboratory analyses have also been used to examined some Limnologic properties of the lake. Results revealed that Goro Dong is a typical shallow and wide fluviatile lake with suitable morphometric properties for recreation and socio-cultural festivities, as well as good limnologic characteristics for fisheries. Controlled human impacts on the lake have been recommended for conservation and sustainability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of the Column of Fe3O4 Free Nanoparticles to Removal of Heavy Metals in Real and Synthetic Leachate

Fahimeh Moghadam, Hamid Reza Pourzamani, Bijan Bina, Hossein Movahedian Attar, Mohammad Hassan Mahmoudian, Asiyeh Moteallemi

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2018/40533

Background and Aim: landfill leachate is a type of wastewater that contains significant amounts of soluble organic compounds. The aim of this study is determining the efficiency of the column of nanoparticles in removing heavy metals from leachate. In this study; the required leachate was prepared synthetically. Furthermore, the natural leachate's samples were also collected from Isfahan compost factory on which this study was done. The samples used for analysis from the input of the column of free nanoparticles, first the leachate is stirred by 2 g/L of free nanoparticles for 10 min at 130 rpm, followed by collection and analysis all the samples after 2 min of sedimentation. To determine the efficiency of free nanoparticles and iron (III) magnetic column in removing organic compounds, nitrogen, and phosphorus, first the concentration of these parameters was investigated before and after adding the magnetic nanoparticles, where the efficiency of the removal of COD concentration, ammonia nitrogen, and natural leachate's phosphorus was 98.91, 99, and 99.2%, respectively. Iron (III) nanoparticles in free form can efficiently remove COD, ammonia nitrogen and phosphorus from the leachate obtained from solid waste materials. Across all these stages, it was found that the levels of COD, phosphorus, and ammonium of the leachate before and after the column have significant relationships.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of Geospatial Technologies in Assessing Gully Erosion in the Humid Tropics of Eniong Offot, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State

Ikpong Sunday Umo, Obot Akpan Ibanga, M. C. Ike

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2018/40224

The application of geospatial tools in geomorphic mapping plays an essential role in the understanding of both landscape evolution and natural hazards (notably gully erosion) across scales. This study investigates the pattern and influence of gully erosion in Etim Umana axis of Eniong Offot, Uyo in Akwa Ibom State with emphasis on geospatial assessment of land use/cover, elevation, and flow accumulation. Map analyses of land use/land cover reveals that urbanization/population growth representing 41.6 percent, scattered cultivation representing 22 percent, and paved surface representing 16.7 percent coupled with high rainfall which together accounted for a total of 80.3 percent of the outstanding drivers of gully migration and expansion in Etim Umana site while secondary vegetation and bared ground accounted for 19.7 percent in the area. The analysis of vegetation using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and three digital elevation model revealed that scarcity of vegetation cover, high to moderate relief, and the bedding plains of the coastal sands deposits also exercised the strong influence on the gully migration in the area. This paper concluded that gully erosion in the Etim Umana area is caused by high incidence of rainfall and surface configuration but accelerated by anthropogenic activities (urbanisation, farming, engineering/construction works). This study recommends the construction of existing drainage systems from roads to the nearby rivers for appropriate regulation of surface runoff generated by heavy rainfall from the already over-stressed facilities in the Offot area of Uyo.