Open Access Original Research Article

Industrial Sustainability and the Circular Economy as Counterparts to the Self-referral Mechanics of Natural Law: Part I—A Theoretical Foundation

Lee Fergusson, Geoffrey Wells, David Kettle

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2018/40365

In Maharishi Vedic Science, the self-referral mechanics of Natural Law are considered fundamental to any complete understanding of nature’s functioning, since Natural Law is understood to be the unmanifest (i.e., non-physical) home of all the laws of nature and the unbounded source of order and intelligence responsible for creating and guiding the physical universe. This proposition is recognizable in modern scientific theories of the ‘unified field’. Moreover, the circular structure and self-referral loops of Natural Law are said to underlie and guide every level of a manifest hierarchy. Among the hallmarks of industrial sustainability are its emphasis on harnessing renewable energy and recycling principles, both designed to limit the impact of polluting activities on the environment and to improve commercial performance. To circumvent the so-called ‘take, make, dispose’ linear economic mentality of the past, contemporary industry has also begun embracing models of circular economy, in which materials and energy are circulated and cascaded through the economic system, with waste either minimized, reused or eliminated altogether. The self-referential nature of recycling and the cascading circularity of circular economies thus bear a prima facie similarity to how Natural Law is structured and functions in continuous self-referral loops.

For that reason, in this Part I of a two-part series of research papers, we explore the fundamental nature of industrial sustainability and circular economy, showing them to be counterparts to the self-referral feedback mechanism of Natural Law as described in Maharishi Vedic Science.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Soil Fertility Status Based on CEC and Variation across Disturbed and Intact Tropical Coastal Forests Sites in Tanzania

Elly Josephat Ligate, Can Chen, Chengzhen Wu

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2018/40545

Aims: Although an understanding of different levels of soil calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, cation exchange capacity, and percentage base saturation, is important in the management of forest ecosystems; however, there is limited documentation on the status of these elements in forest subjected to crop-agriculture and livestock grazing disturbances in the tropical coastal forests. This study aimed to evaluate soil fertility based on exchangeable bases’ status and variation across closed forest (control), agriculture and livestock disturbed sites in the coastal zone of Tanzania to add knowledge on the management of tropical coastal forests.

Methodology: Systematic sampling and stratification approaches were used to get representative samples of forested blocks and disturbed sites. Forty-seven (50 m x 50 m) sampling plots on each of the forest sites were established in the study area from which 141 soil samples were drawn. Ammonium acetate solution was used to extract exchangeable calcium, potassium, magnesium, and sodium from which cation exchange capacity and base saturation were calculated. 

Results: The mean, correlation and t-values were used to compare nutrients across land uses. The mean values were 3.75, 3.11 and 0.63 for Ca2+; 0.80, 5.87 and 6.67 for Mg2+; 0.03, 0.55, and 0.52 for K+; 0.01, 0.31 and 0.31 for Na+; 2.61, 13.74 and 16.36 (cmol(+)/kg) for cation exchange capacity and 10.29, 5.86 and 4.42 (V%) for base saturation in three areas: closed forest, agriculture and livestock disturbed sites.

Conclusions: The variations show that crop-agriculture and livestock grazing disturb soil chemical properties in tropical coastal forests. Therefore, it is essential to protect closed forest sites while putting more efforts to restore the disturbed sites for sustainable forest management along the coastal areas.


Open Access Original Research Article

Use of Different Sawdust Biochar as Soil Amendments to Improve Allelochemical-laden Soils Caused by Bamboo in the Landscape

A. A. Ebeheakey, H. V. Adzraku, P. K. Tandoh

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2018/40546

This study was conducted to find out the ameliorative effect of biochar in allelochemical-laden soils to improve upon soil physicochemical properties. The study was conducted at the Department of Horticulture, KNUST-Ghana. Some trees in the landscape suppress the growth of any other plant species beneath them. This is reported to be caused by the presence of allelochemicals which are released into the soil by the plants, a mechanism known as allelopathy. Soil amendment is therefore needed to curb the effects of these allelochemicals and make nutrients in the soil available to other plant species that may be planted beneath the allelopathic trees. Biochar, a pyrolised biomass, is a fine-grained, highly-porous charcoal substance that is used as a soil amendment. Biochar produced from three different types of sawdust (Tectona grandis, Celtis mildbraedii, and Entandrophragma cylindricum) and absolute control were the treatments used. Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) layout with four (4) treatments and three (3) replicates were employed in the study. The treatments were applied to the soil at a depth of 3 inches at a ratio of 1:1. Data collected included; allelochemicals in the tree and in the soil, rate of growth of grass, percentage coverage of grass, soil water-holding capacity, soil pH and soil nutrient analysis.The study was carried out beneath a bamboo stand–a tree species suspected to be allelopathic. Stenotaphrum secundatum (St. Augustine’s grass) was used for the study because it prefers shaded growing environmental conditions. Data collected over a period of twelve weeks included presence of allelochemicals in the soil and in the tree species, soil physicochemical analysis, rate of growth, and percentage coverage of grass. The results of the initial phytochemical screening revealed that the following allelochemicals were present in the leaves and roots of the bamboo: alkaloids, tannins, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids and triterpenoids.There were no significant differences for total N and soil Potassium. The results of the study also indicated that the bamboo species is allelopathic. Biochar was able to nullify the effects of the allelochemicals and hence allowed the grass to grow well.


Open Access Original Research Article

Application of Electrical Resistivity in Mapping Subsurface Characteristics

Tajudeen Olugbenga Adeeko, Damilola Oluwafemi Samson

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2018/40096

The subsurface is made up of different geologic materials occurring at various depths. In basement terrain, the lithological unit that can be noticed made up of the weathered layer, weathered/fractured basement, and fresh basement. This research applied the application of vertical electrical sounding (VES) method to locate subsurface structures of Iseyin town with coordinate 7.580N and 3.357E. A total of twenty VES using Schlumberger array, the field data obtained were analyzed and interpreted using Win-resist software and the simulated results were processed using surfer 8. The results revealed that the area was characterized by four classes of geo-electrical layers which are top soil (clay, sandy clay, clay sand) with resistivity and thickness values ranges from 43.4Ωm - 819.7Ωm and 0.3m - 6.1m, lateritic layer ranges from 28.1Ωm - 846.0Ωm and 1.2m - 20.7m, weathered/fractured layer ranges from 15.6Ωm - 405.0Ωm and 4.6m - 55.2m, fresh rock with resistivity > 1000Ωm at infinity thickness. From the obtained results, lateritic layer and weathered/fracture layer are the saturated zone (alluvium) which shows that borehole drilling in this area is achievable at a depth of 38.6m which allow big reservoir within the aquifer unit and overburden is thick enough for the aquifer to accommodate high ground water potential.

Open Access Original Research Article

Remote Sensing of Urban Lake Water Quality: A Preliminary Result from Spectral Angle Based Approach

Weiqi Chen, Xuelian Meng, Shuisen Chen, Jia Liu

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2018/40840

This study aims to develop a quick method based on spectral angle (SA) to evaluate overall water quality and spatial variation in urban lakes using in-situ water quality parameters of lakes or reservoirs and synchronous SPOT 5 remote sensing imagery, referring to the spectrum of a clear montanic Jiulongtan Reservoir in satellite image. The regression models between SA and water quality parameters were built for analysis, including chlorophyll a (Chl-a), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total phosphorous (TP), total nitrogen (TN) and integrated trophic state index (TSI). The results show that the grades of lake water quality in Guangzhou could be ordered by SA values from most desirable to least desirable as Jiulongtan Reservoir, Luhu Lake, Liwan Lake, Liuhua Lake, and Dongshan Lake. Further, the results also show that the SA of urban lakes correlates potentially with the parameters of water quality (Chl-a, R2 = 0.929569, p < 0.01; COD, R2 = 0.9767916, p < 0.01; TN, R2 = 0.58767495, p < 0.05; TP, R2 = 0.8705, p < 0.05) or TSI (R2 = 0.9066, p < 0.001) in spite of limited data samples collected in the study. The SA classification results by SPOT 5 multi-spectral images roughly reflect the grade difference of water quality as a whole and their spatial variations, i.e. consistent with concurrent result of lake water sampling analysis. The validation shows this approach can be helpfully used to quickly monitor the water quality status of lakes or reservoirs for broad region, to effectively identify the sampling locations for water sample taking and water quality analysis, and provide information for the management of urban lakes (by SPOT 5 or higher resolution satellite image) or large-middle sized reservoir (by Landsat ETM+).