Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Sulfur Dioxide Dispersion in the Atmosphere from Petroleum Production Unit No. 9 and Its Proximity to Masjid-I-Suleiman

Takassi , B. Nosrarpanah, S. Mellat

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2018/35877

Masjid-I-Suleiman became the first petroleum city in Iran and the Middle East and the petroleum production unit located nearby, due to its aging installation and technology for petroleum and natural gas exploration has now become the largest SO2 polluter among the petroleum producing regions in southern provinces. Petroleum production unit No. 9, located in the residential area of Masjid-I Suleiman, separates gases which are dissolved in petroleum. Every day about seven million cubic feet of gas are burnt in the flares. The amount of sulfur compounds in this gas is about 7 percent by volume, which after burning are released as SO2 in the air. This research was conducted to determine the amount of dispersion of SO2 in the atmosphere in proximity to Masjid-I Suleiman. In the present study lead peroxide absorbent plates were used to absorb SO2 from air for six months. The amount of SO2 was measured using a standard laboratory procedure and expressed in units of µg SO2 cm-2 day-1. The minimum and the maximum of SO2 adsorption on absorbent plates in six month sampling (summer and autumn) was equal to 0.32and 30.08 µg SO2 cm-2day-1 respectively. The average amount for the whole period was 8.74 µg SO2 cm-2day-1.  Results of this study were compared with ISO-9223 standard, the Poland research institute, and some other petroleum production units. The amount of sulfur dioxide pollution is at a high level in the areas studied. Moreover, the influence of meteorological factors such as temperature, relative humidity and wind speed on the dispersion of SO2 was investigated. The results of this investigation demonstrate an inverse relationship of SO2 concentration with relative humidity, and a direct relationship with the temperature and wind speed.


Open Access Original Research Article

Removal of α- and β- Endosulfan from Soils by Using Natural and Synthetic Surfactants

Irmene Ortiz, Marco A. Ávila-Chávez, Luis G. Torres

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2018/40009

Aims: The aim of this work was studying a process of surfactant-assisted soil washing for the remediation of a soil spiked with α- and β-endosulfan (6,7,8,9,10,10-Hexachloro-1,5,5a,6,9,9a-hexahydro- 6,9-methano-2,4,3-benzodioxathiepine-3-oxide).

Place and Duration of Study: The work was carried out at UPIBI-IPN during 2016.

Methodology: An agricultural soil was collected and spiked with a commercial pesticide. Ten surfactants (nonionic, ionic, cationic, zwitterionic and natural) were selected for washing the soil using concentrations ranging between 0.001 to 0.2% w/w for each surfactant. Residual endosulfan concentrations were evaluated before and after washing soil process. Moreover, the extraction efficiency was related to surface tension and critical micellar concentration (CMC) of every surfactant.

Results: Better extraction efficiency was observed for α-endosulfan, its average extraction efficiency was around 73% and 55% for β-endosulfan. These values were significantly higher (up to 40%) than those observed in control experiments (water without surfactant). The maximum extraction of α-endosulfan was 90% and it was obtained using canarcel 20 at 10 times CMC. On the other hand, the maximum extraction of β-endosulfan was around 80% when surfactant polafix LO was used at a concentration of 700 times CMC, indicating that the surfactant-assisted soil washing process was suitable for extraction of pesticides from polluted soil. However, the wastewater produced should be treated in a subsequent process.

Conclusion: Natural surfactants did not show CMC in the range of concentration tested. Guar gum did not show a reduction of surface tension, even when concentration increases up to 1200 mg/L. In the case of mesquite seed gum, the surface tension slightly decreases from 73 to around 65 dyn/cm. Tween 80, canarcel 20 and emulgin W-400 showed a CMC of 65, 60 and 10 mg/L. CMC of dehyquart A, surfacpol A and texapon KD was of 160, 250 and 900 mg/L, respectively. Considering all surfactants, the extraction obtained of α-endosulfan is in the range of 65 to 94% with a mean of 79%, while extraction of β-endosulfan was in the range of 41 to 80%, with a mean of 61%. Accordingly to the nature of surfactants, best extraction efficiencies were obtained as follows nonionic > nonionic natural > ionic. Best extraction efficiency of α-endosulfan was 94% obtained with canarcel 20 (C* of 11.6) while for β-endosulfanthebest extraction efficiency was 80% obtained using canarcel 20 (C* of 11.6) and guar gum (383 mg/L). This information is highly valuable for designing a soil washing process for treatment of pesticide-polluted soil using natural compoundsas surfactants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quantification of Habitat (Forest) Shape Complexity through Geo-Spatial Analysis: An Ecological Approach in Panchet Forest Division in Bankura, West Bengal

Mrinmay Mandal, Nilanjana Das Chatterjee

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2018/40085

Landscape consists of different landuse and land cover whatever it natural or queasy-natural. Each and every unit of landscape plays a considerable role in ecosystem ecology. When forest cover habitat considered as an unite of landscape, the entire ecological system being reciprocal with it. Spatial attributes of the landscape, landuse and land cover’s structure and composition directly related with quality of the habitat. Habitat shape is one of the unique characters of the landscape which is regulating many ecological processes. Habitat fragmentation and loss of habitat, these two important ecological processes of the landscape equivalently connected with habitat shape complexity. In Panchet forest division forest patches are structurally fragmented due to complex shape. For the purpose of the study 27 forest patches are digitized from the map of Panchet forest division by using ArcGIS 10.3 version software.  Study tries to investigate the habitat quality through habitat shape analysis. To know the nature of shape complexity and habitat loss of these forest patches three indices (SI, ERI and PPACI) have been taken. These indices results represent that Joypur, Kalabagan, Gobinadapur being larger forest patches in spite of their shape complexity is become high. To manage this situation that is habitat quality enhancement study also recommends some approaches relate with habitat loss and habitat fragmentation.


Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Soil from an Automobile Mechanic Workshop in Abuja

Chinenye Nna Orji, Funke Wosilat Abdulrahman, Nnennaya Rosemary Isu

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2018/36702

Spent oil contaminated soil from a mechanic workshop located in Gwagwalada Area Council of Abuja, FCT of Nigeria, was assessed of heavy metals (Fe, Pb, CD, Cu, Cr, Ni and Zn) concentration. Soil samples were collected from seven points at depth 0- 15 cm, wet digested in duplicates with 2 M HNO3 in a closed system and concentrations of heavy metals analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The order of the mean concentration of heavy metal content in the contaminated sample and control soil were Fe> Zn > Cu >Pb > Cr > Ni > Cd and Fe > Cr > Zn > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cd respectively. The range (mg/kg) of the heavy metals in the contaminated soil were: 158.55 for Fe, 0.01 for Cd, 17.14 for Cu, 3.17 for Cr, 1.96 for Ni, 16.40 for Zn and 60.41 for Pb. There was an indication that Ni had the same source in the contaminated soil with Fe and Zn, having shown a correlations at r= 0.69; p = .043 and r= 0.85; p = .008 respectively while total organic matter and Carbonate content (r = - 0.96; p < 0.001), showed inverse correlation. The degrees of contamination, potential ecological risk factor and potential risk index of the heavy metals in all the points of the mechanic workshop were of low grade. The mean geo-accumulation index, Igeo, values for the various metals in the different points were all negative. Therefore, the heavy metals have not caused any harm yet to the mechanic workshop under study. The findings of this study would add to the environmental database of the soil of this mechanic workshop, which in due course, will assist in the monitoring, management and remediation strategies for heavy metal contaminated soil.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigating the Soil Carbon Storage Dynamic and Sequestration Potentiality in the Tropical Coral Island (St. Martin) of Bay of Bengal

Masud Hassan, Md. Mazharul Islam, Md. Nazmul Hoda, Husna Pia, Marufa Aktar, Abdur Rahman, Md. Arafat Hassan, Akash Kumar Palit, Rajon Mohonto, Jahed Al Faysal, Md. Jashim Uddin

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2018/39754

With a limited amount of carbon storage, Saint Martin Island possesses a very unique soil and environmental characteristics. It needed to be documented about the carbon and organic matter percentage years ago for the proper measurement of carbon sequestration but the work was not completed. As the investigation started to collect the data, the experiment faced many obstacles at every stages because the information we needed was too less to conduct any experiment. We see that SOC (soil organic carbon) densities vary widely among various soil depths and various locations. Different land types and land use requires different carbon storage. The percentage of organic matter count and carbon storage in this Island is typically lower than other parts of the Bangladesh. The MAT (Medication-Assisted Treatment) and MAP framework was included with the variable climatic conditions which made a conclusion that the environmental impact and consequences are needed to be estimated for the improvement of soil condition and betterment of future research. With the analysis of carbon storage, we included some information about soil bulk density, wet soil mass and dry soil mass, and carbon stock indifferent vertical scale that may lead to better understanding about carbon storage and sequestration potentiality of that place in the future which may open a new windows of knowledge of carbon storage flux and global warming. To determine the degree of carbon sequestration in this Island a large number of proper experiments are needed to be done.