Open Access Case study

An Exploratory Study of Adoption of Brazilian-based Model for Production and Diffusion of Cassava Ethanol in Nigeria

Samuel Adekunle Amoran

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2017/35489

Nigeria has chosen to adopt the development and application of biofuel as an alternative fossil energy sources in its bid to lessen air pollution and mitigate climate change through reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in the transportation sector. This might be a pathway to generating a sustainable economy that will improve automotive exhaust emission in the country, reduce domestic use of petrol, free up more crude for export and to position Nigeria for development of green fuel. Based on information from Nigeria National Petroleum corporation’s (NNPC) official in the Renewable Energy Division, two potential crops were explored for fuel ethanol initiative in Nigeria, Sugar cane and Cassava. This paper focus on the production and diffusion of fuel ethanol from Cassava. The diffusion of innovation theory is used to analyze successful dissemination of this innovation within the country. Barriers and possible challenges were discussed; strategies to overcoming these challenges were suggested. This can be a roadmap for government, policy makers and key actors in the biofuel sector, the sustainable path to clean environment within the Nigerian energy sector.

 

Open Access Short Research Article

Causes of Deforestation and Its Geological Impacts in Swat District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Mubashir Mehmood, Muhammad Yaseen, Ikram- Ud-Din, Anwar Badshah, Muhammad Jehangir Khan, Haroon

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2017/31824

The most alarming threat to the forest are human being, their actions results transformation of forest lands representing one of the excessive forces in worldwide ecological change and one of the great drivers of biodiversity loss. Human activity is continuous and has a profound impact. Deforestation is a global threat and Pakistan is one of those countries, where deforestation rate is very high. This study was designed in order to find out the causes and impacts of deforestation and forest degradation in District Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, by incorporating the view of local people through a questionnaire. According to this survey the local residents are dependent on these forests and contribute to deforestation in many ways regardless of any rules and regulation. Extensive deforestation in Swat is the result of daily livelihood use of forests furniture, heating, agriculture etc. Unemployment and poverty also plays a key role in forest degradation. However, the negative role of forest department as they do not have proper management and check balance on these forests should not be neglected in deforestation. In the current study the geological impacts like landslides and soil erosion has also been discussed as 78% of the local residents were also aware of the fact that with degradation of forest this hazard increases.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

An Inventory of Agroforestry Practices in Butta Sub-County, Manafwa District, Uganda

S. Kabiru, S. Hassan, U. A. Umar, I. Musab

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2017/39518

Background: Agroforestry is being regarded as an effective, low-cost means of minimizing the degradation of cultivated land and of maintaining or even increasing the productive capacity of agricultural ecosystems.

Aim of the Study: This study aimed to develop an inventory of agroforestry practices and constraints among small-scale farmers in Butta sub-county, Manafwa district in Uganda.

Methodology: The study was conducted with the heads of household selected using a combination of multistage stratified random sampling and systematic random sampling. The study population of this research involved two categories of respondents that are the household and extension officers from the sub-county. The quantitative data collected from the household heads were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 20.0 and Microsoft office excel 2013. Descriptive analysis was conducted to estimate frequencies and percentages of the responses. Friedman test was conducted to identify the most critical constraints associated with agroforestry adoption.

Results: Five practices were identified and these range from Boundary marking, live fences, hedges, woodlots to Home gardens. The most significant constraint was Pest and diseases with mean rank 1.24 followed by fire outbreak, Lack of labor, Drought, Shortage of land, and lack of seedlings and Theft with mean rank of 1.32, 2.11, 2.41, 2.53 and 3.11 respectively.

Conclusion: Boundary planting is the most widely adopted practice while woodlots were the least. Wives and children are the main farm labor providers and therefore farm labor is often available when the children are on holiday since most of them attend boarding schools.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study of How Indigenous Peoples Perceive the Impact of Tourism and Support These Attitudes in Their Tribes

Chiu- Hui Hung

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2017/39012

The purpose of this study is to analyze how indigenous peoples perceive the impact of tourism and their attitudes regarding its development within their tribes. Indigenous people from three tribes in south Alishan, Taiwan—Shanmei, Chashan, and Xinmei—were included in this study. The random sample method was used to carry out the survey, and a total of 256 effective questionnaires were collected. After statistical analysis, the findings of this study are as follows: 1. Although indigenous peoples perceive tourism’s environmental impact as negative, they tend to be supportive of tourism development; 2. When indigenous peoples perceive positive economic and sociocultural impacts from tourism development, they tend to have higher levels of support; and 3. When indigenous peoples have a negative perception of the economic impact of tourism development, their support is lower. According to the above results, this study puts forward some suggestions for the management indigenous tourism efforts and future research directions.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Heavy Metals Composition of Soil at E-waste Dumping Sites

Bamidele Adewumi, Ebenezer Akingunsola, Oluwabunmi P. Femi-Oloye, Femi F. Oloye

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2017/39500

Electronic waste (e-waste) has become a subject of growing ecological concern in developing nations due to legal/illegal import of electronics from developed countries. Soil samples were collected from e-waste dumping sites in Arakale and Karakata, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. The samples were analysed for heavy metals with the aid of Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The mean concentrations of cadmium, lead, chromium, zinc and copper from the two locations range from 4.24±0.31 to 9.73±0.39; 113.66±1.03 to 261.63±3.58; 21.42±0.27 to 56.92±0.53; 108.71±0.82 to 197.98±2.22 and 19.79±0.32 to 62.88±0.91 mg/kg respectively. There was a gradual decrease in heavy metals concentrations at various distances away from the study site. The mean concentrations of metals observed in this study were found below the recommended standard limits of heavy metals in soil by United States Environmental Protection Agency, and the European Union. However, cadmium was found above the recommended standard limits of heavy metals in soil, thus their potential availability and possible effects on human, plants and the ecosystem at large.