Open Access Short Research Article
As Earth continues to experience increased global warming, biological species on Earth are pushed to constantly modify and adapt to the changing Earth’s climate in order to survive. This environmental pressure might push some of the more fragile species toward the brink of extinction thus human interventions are deemed necessary to minimize the current and future impacts of climate change. Current interventions include mitigation through international policies and regional laws by reducing anthropogenic outputs into Earth’s climate system as well as conservation efforts to slow down extinction rate. In this paper, we will discuss how geoengineering can be added into one of these human interventions to reduce impacts of climate change on Earth’s biodiversity. Geoengineering might provide immediate and simple solutions to current climate problems, however, only few researches have been conducted to study impacts and feasibility of geoengineering on life on Earth. Discussion on the feasibility and impacts of geoengineering on biodiversity will be assessed for two main techniques of geoengineering; carbon dioxide removal (CDR) and solar radiation management (SRM). From these two techniques, afforestation, which is one of CDR methods was selected as this method provide viable and sustainable form of geoengineering towards biodiversity.
Open Access Original Research Article
Groundwater is the main source of water supply to both urban and rural populations as well as to industry and agriculture. Among various water cycle characteristics, groundwater recharge is the leading hydrologic parameter determining groundwater resources availability and sustainability. Accurate estimation of groundwater recharge is extremely important for proper development and management of the resource. Groundwater recharge was estimated under field condition at north-eastern region (Mymensingh) of Bangladesh using tracer technique as well as water-balance and Lysimeter method. Three years average recharge rate was found as 228.7 mm/year under tracer technique; and 141.7 mm under water balance method. The lysimeter method showed lower rate, may be due to variation of subsoil condition from the field. The results of the study will be helpful for planning of sustainable groundwater in the area.
Open Access Original Research Article
The study evaluated the use and determinants of households’ adoption of biomass improved cook stove in Nigeria. Enugu State was chosen for the study. Structured questionnaires were used to collect the required data. Using a multi stage sampling techniques, a total of 160 households were selected for the study. Findings from the study reveal that majority (23.12%) of the household heads were within the age range of 31-40 years, 68.10% were married and 56.90% were female, while 86% attended school, 61% had other occupations other than farming, 59% had 0-10 years farming experience and 85% had monthly income of between N1000 to N50,000. About 68% of the households use one form of locally fabricated improved cook stove or the other. The different kinds of improved cook stove used are iron bucket stove (33.03%), saw dust stove (39.45%), U shaped mud stove (17.43%), jiko and mirt stove (10.09%). The study found age, gender, educational level, household size and income to be statistically significant as determinants of adoption of ICS. Some of the problems inhibiting the adoption of modern improved cook stove are lack of availability, lack of awareness and high cost. We recommend that stoves should be made available and affordable.
Open Access Review Article
Protected areas are clearly defined geographical spaces created to achieve long-term conservation of nature and surrounding areas, including cultural heritages, flora, fauna and so on. Nature conservation is hence one of the basic responsibilities of the state, society and every person. The main objective of this contribution is to present current state and structure of nature protection of protected areas in Armenia and Slovakia. This paper states the theoretical elements of the protection of protected areas in Armenia and Slovakia. We analyzed the collected information applying quantitative and qualitative approach. Legal regulation in Armenia is based on the Law of the Republic of Armenia on Specially Protected Nature Areas. At present the system of Specially Protected Nature Areas in Armenia includes 4 categories of protected areas: state reserves/strict nature reserves, national parks, sanctuaries/state reservations, nature monuments. Legislative basis for nature protection in Slovakia serves the Act No. 543/2002 Coll. on Nature and Landscape Protection. From the point of view territorial protection, protected areas in Slovak Republic are classified into 8 categories: national parks, protected landscape areas, protected site, nature reserve, nature monument, protected landscape fragment, protected bird area, protected area established by municipality. We present two significant protected areas of both countries to emphasize their importance in the structure of nature protection, their law regulation and uniqueness from the point of view flora, fauna, climate and location.
Open Access Review Article
Groundwater is the main source of water supply to both urban and rural populations as well as to industry and agriculture. Among various water cycle characteristics, groundwater recharge is the leading hydrologic parameter determining groundwater resources availability and sustainability. Accurate estimation of groundwater recharge is extremely important for proper development and management of the resource. Different approaches and methods are available to quantify groundwater recharge – from direct approaches, inferred from more easily measurable physical and chemical parameters, to simulation models with varying complexity. The methods have their own merits, demerits, and limitations. For proper selection of a method in a particular geo-hydrologic and climatic condition, detail knowledge of the methods along with their applicability/limitations, and the governing factors affecting recharge are essential. This paper presents an overview of the methods along with the theory underlying the methods (physical basis), assumptions, advantages, limitations, and selection procedure under the prevailing situation of technological, hydro-geological, and resource availability; with a view to help proper selection of a method. The overview synthesized and exemplified the above issues, and concludes with discussion of challenges and research needs in this evolving field.