Open Access Original Research Article

Status of Wetlands in the Coimbatore District, Tamilnadu, India

M. Janaranjani, K. Varunprasath, R. Lekshmi Priya, L. Sutharsan, M. Lakeshmanaswamy

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2017/36421

The present investigation was carried out to study the status of wetlands in the Coimbatore district in the TamilNadu, for the period of November 2016 to March 2017. Out of 49 wetlands, less than10 acres occupies 26%, between 11-100 acres represent 51%, 101-250 acres occupies 17% and above 250 acres contain 6% of wetlands. Compared with previous records, 51% wetlands are being used, 32% of wetlands vanished before six years and 17% of wetlands gone within 5 years. During every summer season, 53% of wetlands get dried out, 19% were partially dried up and 28% of wetlands remain as such water holding throughout the year. In Coimbatore district, 55% of wetlands were polluted by degradable and non degradable waste, 15% degradable waste, 11% non degradable waste and 19% of wetlands were out of waste dumping. According to the usage of wetlands, 20 wetlands used for irrigation, 13 wetlands used for fishing, 7% of wetlands were used for washing clothes and cleaning cattle and 2.2% of wetland used as drinking source. The results represented that decline of wetlands in Coimbatore district was due to waste dumping, construction nearby wetlands, lack of desilting and dredging, blocking water channel and lack of strict law. Apart from government regulation, better monitoring mechanism are needed to increases the knowledge of the physical, chemical and biological characteristic of wetlands resources. Awareness implemented through government and NGO for popularization of the importance of the lakes, wetlands and their role in aquatic biodiversity and sustenance of human civilization.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Study on Soil Spread at Rehabilitation Area for Promotion of Plant Growth in Open Cut Coal Mine in Kalimantan Area in Indonesia

Akihiro Hamanaka, Takashi Sasaoka, Hideki Shimada

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2017/37291

Rehabilitation is one of the important and considerable topics for an environment protection in mine closure process. A lot of open cut mine keep the topsoil in the natural forest during soil stripping process to spread the topsoil to rehabilitation area for success of revegetation. However, there are some considerable points for handling with the topsoil in situ such as the soil properties and severe compaction by heavy equipment. Therefore, we carried out field researches and laboratory experiments to investigate the characteristics of soil spread in rehabilitation area in terms of plant growth: particle size distribution, Atterberg limits, soil bulk density, soil moisture contents, soil pH and soil EC, permeability, and soil hardness. As a result of the series of tests, different types of soil with natural soil were backfilled in the rehabilitation area due to mixing with overburden. This result suggest that revegetation process should be designed with consideration of soil conditions.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Vulnerability Assessment of Soil Erosion Based on Topography and Vegetation Cover in a Developing City of Orlu L.G.A, South East Nigeria

M. C. Iwuji, O. L. Iroh, J. D. Njoku, S. O. Anyanwu, G. T. Amangabara, K. O. E. Ukaegbu

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2017/34143

The problem of erosion has over time been exacerbated by the development and constructions of buildings, roads, poor drainage system and other urban characters on areas transiting from rural to urban setting. This study set out to evaluate the vulnerability of Orlu L.G.A., Nigeria, to erosion in the face of increased anthropogenic activities using a combination of Geographic Information System (GIS) and soil characteristics. Soil samples were collected and analysed for geotechnical/physical properties, slope was also measured. Satellite images where analyzed for changes in land use and land cover, while GPS coordinates of different points in the area were obtained and interpolated into a map to create digital elevation model (DEM). With the aid of the GIS, slope pattern was established. Urbanization has triggered some erosion problems in the study area. Gully formation was seen to have been induced mainly by poorly designed construction works. The study also established the degree and length of slope, the soil and inherent geologic formations of the study area are the primary factors of the gully erosion in the study area. From the GIS generated images, the northern and western section of the study area are prone to erosion hazards and this was confirmed by a field reconnaissance survey.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Delineation of River Watershed and Stream Network Using ILWIS 3.7.1 Academic

R. E. Daffi, I. I. Ahuchaogu

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2017/35972

The delineation of watersheds can be carried out manually using topographic maps but these maps are mostly outdated, scarce and incomplete for most parts of Nigeria and may be of different scales for large watersheds that require several sheets of the map. Watershed boundaries need to be delineated accurately because the areas and perimeters of watersheds are used in many hydrological analyses. This study is aimed at delineating the River Dep watershed and stream network using 90m SRTM Digital Elevation Model and Geographic Information Systems technique and comparing the shape and pattern with the one previously delineated manually using topographic maps and areal photographs. The 90 m SRTM Digital Elevation Model used for the study was obtained from the Global Land Facility Cover site and processed in ERDAS Imagine 9.2 before exporting to ILWIS 3.7.1 ACADEMIC. The watershed area obtained from the GIS delineation processes was 10640 km2 while it was 9600 km2 from the report of the one delineated by manual methods in 1980. The same 1980 manually delineated watershed when scanned, imported, georeferenced and digitised in ILWIS 3.7.1 gave a watershed area of 10244 km2. The differences in the watershed area could be due to the effect of input data or errors from the estimation using traditional delineation. The study showed similarity in shape and pattern for both the watersheds and stream networks delineated using the two methods. The study shows the capability of the ILWIS DEM hydro-processing tools used for watershed and stream network delineation using the 90m SRTM Digital Elevation Model and it is recommended that the both can be used with a reasonable level of accuracy.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Macro- and Trace Elements in Freshwater Lake Sediments in the South of West Siberia

Natalia B. Naumova, Vera D. Strakhovenko

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2017/37445

Aim: Recently lake sediments and their studies have been drawing increasing attention due to organic farming and environmental engineering. This pilot study was carried out to examine chemical element content in sediments of several shallow freshwater lakes in the forest-steppe zone in the south of West Siberia, Russia.

Study Design: Lake bottom sediments were collected at random by corer at 5-cm increments down to 75 cm deep, then stored at field moisture in anaerobic conditions at +4°C until analysed.  

Place and Duration of Study: Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry and Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia, between June 2013 and September 2014.

Methodology: Sediments of shallow freshwater lakes were studied by measuring macro- and trace elements contents and performing principal components analysis with the data obtained.

Results: The studied lakes were found to store substantial amounts of carbon and nitrogen in their sediment organic matter, namely 2.2 Tg C and 0.2 Tg N in the top 40-cm layer. The PCA analysis of the elemental composition of lake sediments discriminated them from each other, revealing the unique biogeochemical nature of lake sediments even within one and the same biome.

Conclusion: The estimates underscore the importance of lake sediments in the carbon budget of the Novosibirsk region and West Siberia with ca. 3,000 and 22,000 lakes, respectively. Unique chemical nature of lake sediments questions their potential as fertilizer and soil conditioners in agriculture and bioremediation, requires standardization and development of the adequate technologies.