Open Access Original Research Article

Groundwater Quality Aspect Owing to Urbanization in Langat Basin (Kajang, Semenyih) Malaysia

Syeda Jesmin Haque, Norsyafina Roslan

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2017/36049

Aims: Unrefined industrial sewerage and unplanned water use changes groundwater quality and pollutes environment which is vulnerable to Langat basin of Malaysia. This research has aimed to find the water pollution trend due to urbanization by analyzing the hydrogeological condition and ground water quality status of Langat basin giving emphasis on Kajang and Semenyih town.

Study Design: Geological, hydrochemical and statistical analysis.

Place and Duration of Study: Borehole log, pumping test and groundwater chemistry data were collected from Mineral and Geosciences Department, Selangor for two towns Kajang and Semenyih. Study areas are in Kenny Hill formation and the wells pumping water from four types of rock formation. Ten years data variation on population and water quality were used.

Methodology: Three types of analyses were performed by using collected data. The subsurface geological analyses, well water chemistry interpretation with Hydrochemical facies analysis and statistical analyses. All the analyses were done by using different software.

Results: EC, Alkalinity, Nitrite as Nitrogen and trace metals like Cd, Pb, Mn shows very high concentration in the Kajang groundwater. In Semenyih Fe and Nitrate as Nitrogen concentrations are high. Positive correlation of Nitrite as Nitrogen, Nitrate as Nitrogen and trace elements like Mn, Cd, Pb, Cr and Cu with population has a significant relationship of urban pollution in Kajang and Semenyih groundwater.

Conclusion: The study unveils the truth that urbanization not only impacts on the surface water but also same impact on groundwater although intensity varies with population size and subsurface condition. Finally, policy recommendations were drawn to minimize the impact of urbanization on groundwater.


Open Access Original Research Article

Inventory and Impact of Dominant Fishing Gear and Method in Eleyele Lake, Oyo State, Nigeria

Adedokun, Mathew Adewale, A. O. Ayanboye, O. B. Adelodun, T. A. Kolawole

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2017/34885

Gill nets fishery are potentially selective and therefore use as a sampling gear if mesh sizes are rightly chosen in order to conserve the young and developing fishes. Precautionary approach towards Conserving and sustaining renewable aquatic resources is the best for exploitation of the cheapest sources of animal protein in sub-Sahara region. This paper gives inventory of the existing fishing gears and methods commonly in use and impacts of gill net fishery in terms of mesh sizes selectivity, catch per unit effort and fishing profitability index in Eleyele Lake Ibadan. A total of 539 fishing gears were encountered in six sampled areas of two strata; gill nets, traps, cast nets, dragnets and long - line (baited and un-baited). Gillnets accounted for 36% in the strata.  Apparently, stratum 1 had 159 and stratum 2 had 33 units of gill net; descriptive statistics showed Wide variation in the total fishing gears and methods observed in the strata and X2 (Chi square) showed significant (P> 0.01) in the numerical strength of gill nets and less significant (P> 0.01) of legal mesh sizes usage. The most caught species was tilapia, 57.7% by number and 33.8% by weight of the total catch and were not sizable with mean weight of 203 g of the total catch. Gill net fishery of Eleyele Lake comprises of legal and illegal mesh sizes of which the later accounted for 48% of 192 and its use accounted for over 58.7% by number and 20% by weight of the entire fish caught. The effects of catching process of gill net fishery in Eleyele Lake resulted into yields with wider variation across genera and species of fish caught (mean=341.5, S.D=229.2) and fetches its production cost about 12.23 times in a life span.


Open Access Original Research Article

Assessing and Monitoring Spatiotemporal Distribution of Mosquito Habitats, Suez Canal Zone

Mohamed Sowilem, Ahmed El-Zeiny, Wedad Atwa, Manal Elshaier, Asmaa El-Hefni

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2017/35054

This study aims to predict the potential mosquito larval habitats and monitoring the environmental factors associated with mosquito habitats to assess the spatiotemporal distribution in Suez Canal Zone, during the period of November 2014 - April 2016 by integrating remote sensing and GIS techniques. Larvae were collected using a standard dipping with a small ladle from all accessible breeding habitats. Environmental factors Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI) and Land Surface Temperature (LST) associated with mosquitoes breeding habitats were derived from multispectral images. Results showed that, the maximum predicted area in Port Said governorate (Sector A) was detected at April 2016 recording 134.37 km2, while in Ismailia (Sector B) and Suez Governorates (Sector C) at October 2015 (295.27 km2, 74.37 km2 respectively). Total predicted area in Suez Canal Zone, in the whole study period, could be ordered as following; Ismailia (1196.91 km2, 70%), Port Said (254.61 km2, 17%) and Suez (213.9 km2, 13%). Significant positive correlations were found between the total predicted area in Sector A, B and C with the studied environmental variables. The strongest positive correlation was observed in Ismailia (Sector B). The present study provides the baseline information for decision makers to take necessary optimal control strategies to mitigate mosquito nuisance, proliferation and potential diseases transmission.  


Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Effects of Brewery Waste Water Discharge and Self Purification Potential of “Rafin Giya” Stream in Kudenda Industrial Layout, Kaduna Nigeria

Umar Musa, Paul Chidi Okonkwo

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2017/35837

Flowing surface water bodies have natural capacities to purify themselves from pollutions that come into them from external sources. The impact of the effluents of a brewing industry located in Kaduna on Rafin Giya stream and its self-purification potential were investigated. The brewery wastewater effluents were collected and analysed for some physicochemical parameters for a period of 27 days to determine the level of constituents, toxicity level and suitability for its discharge into receiving water body. Water samples were also collected from five points at 200 m interval along the stream covering the upstream and the downstream. The physicochemical parameters determined include:  pH, Temperature, Electrical conductivity (EC), Turbidity, Total suspended solids (TSS), Total dissolved solids (TDS), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Chlorides and Coliform. The average values of these parameters for the brewery effluents were 3.79, 29.09°C, 1011.8 µs/cm, 6.09 NTU, 1048.9 mg/L, 826.9 mg/L, 1128.8 mg/L, 2122.1 mg/L, 573.5 mg/L and 1 MPN in respectively. Most of these parameters were found to be higher than the limits set by the National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency (NESREA) in Nigeria for industrial wastewater discharge into receiving water bodies. The physicochemical parameters determined for the stream water also include:  pH, Temperature, Total suspended solids (TSS), Turbidity, Chlorides, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5), Dissolved oxygen (DO), Electrical conductivity (EC), Total dissolved solids (TDS) and coliform. The values obtained at a point upstream, the brewery effluent discharge point and three points downstream at 200 m intervals were 6.4, 4.0, 4.8, & 4.9; 27°C, 31°C, 31°C, 31°C, & 30°C; 3.8 NTU, 8.1 NTU, 8.0 NTU, 7.8 NTU, & 7.1 NTU; 730 mg/l, 1490 mg/l, 1420 mg/l, & 1340 mg/l; 270 µs/cm, 1480 µs/cm, 1480 µs/cm, 1450 µs/cm, & 1400 µs/cm; 100 mg/l, 1680 mg/l, 1550 mg/l, 1430 mg/l & 12000 mg/l; 14.6 mg/l, 2.8 mg/l, 3.9 mg/l, 4.8 mg/l, & 6.4 mg/l, for pH, Temperature, Turbidity, Electrical conductivity, BOD, and DO respectively. The corresponding self-purification potential exhibited by the stream over a distance of study were found to be 76.6%, 90 .0%, 25.0%, 53.5%, 93.7%, 8.3%, 43.8%, 19.3%, 54.5% and 100% for the parameters respectively. This trend of results compare favourably with literature values on flowing rivers. These results therefore suggested that the brewery wastewater have great pollution impact on the stream water and therefore making it unsuitable for human consumption. The pollution absorbance potential of the stream is low as a result of its low volume and flow rate, although gradual self-purification was observed, it is recommended that careless disposal of such contaminants should be discouraged with strict enforcement of existing legislation and regular monitoring.


Open Access Original Research Article

Quality Evaluation of Earth Dam and Pond Water in Gella, Mubi South Local Government Area

Ismaila Yada Sudi, Fadimatu Ahmed Buba, Henry Bulama Gideon, Maryam Usman Ahmed, Moses Zira Zaruwa

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2017/34921

The present work was to evaluate the quality of ponds and earth dam water of Gella town in Mubi South Local Government Area of Adamawa State in order to examine its suitability for drinking and domestic purposes. Four ponds and an earth dam water samples were collected each during dry seasons between the months of November to April 2015/2016. The samples were analyzed using arithmetic mean and standard deviation which was then compared with the World Health Organization (WHO) and NAFDAC standard. Physicochemical parameters were studied using standard methods, concentrations of heavy metals determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy and bacteriological analysis conducted using standard methods. Result of the analyses revealed that the water samples were slightly acidic to slightly alkaline (pH 5.60 ± 0.17 – 7.20 ± 0.12). The calcium concentration in water studied ranged between 19.79±01 to 28.21±00 mg/L while that of magnesium ranged between 0.94±0.01 to 2.18±0.06 mg/L and these concentrations were within permissible WHO and NAFDAC recommended standard limits. While the coliform count were above WHO and NAFDAC standards for drinking water, and the water samples were good for drinking and domestic purposes. Water treatment and regular monitoring of the water quality of the area and provision of industrial motorized borehole water for easy distribution to the community have been strongly recommended.