Open Access Original Research Article

Does Source Sanitation Affect Water Quality?

S. B. Igboro, M. I. Alfa, F. B. Wamyil, O. O. Oyebiyi

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2017/35534

In order to correlate sanitation around water source with the quality of water from the source this study was conducted a cross-sectional study on 15 boreholes in 5 political wards using quantitative method of data collection. The Field survey was carried out in selected wards of Sabongari Local Government Area (LGA) of Kaduna State, Nigeria, while the laboratory analysis was carried out at the Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering between February and March, 2017. All functional boreholes in each of the five selected wards within Sabon gari LGA that served as communal source of water supply were included. A total of 15 boreholes (3 from each ward) were studied for water quality and surrounding sanitation. The physicochemical and microbiological analysis of water samples collected from the respective boreholes were carried out using standard methods and the results were compared to the Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality and the WHO standards for conformity or otherwise while a checklist was used to assess the surrounding sanitation. The total score of both the water quality and sanitation were categorized respectively as poor, fair and good. A t-test was carried out using STATA/SE 13.1 Statistical Software to correlate the surrounding sanitation with the water quality. The confidence interval for the mean difference between water quality and sanitation (0.2384 – 1.3616) and the P-value (P = .0086) suggest that there is a relationship between the sanitation and the quality of water. As efforts are being made to increase access to clean water especially in developing economies like Nigeria, serious attention need to be given to the sanitation of the surroundings of the water source to prevent compromise of the water quality.


Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Land Use and Land Cover Dynamics in Orlu, Nigeria

M. C. Iwuji, C. P. Ibe, J. D. Njoku, S. O. Anyanwu, G. T. Amangabara, N. Ac-Chukwuocha, K. O. E. Ukaegbu

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2017/34144

This research set out to ascertain the land use and land cover changes that have taken place in Orlu L.G.A from 1986 to 2013. Two fundamental tools applied were GIS and remote sensing which were used for the assessment of LULC. Remote sensing provided multi temporal images, while GIS was used to analyze the data from a geographic perspective. Field observation was also carried out in the area in order to assess the level of urbanization as well as the trend of development. The result of this analysis provided four major classifications of land use and land cover which include; bare-soil, built-up, water body and vegetation. The built up area was observed to have increased rapidly between 2000 and 2013 with a value of 46.207% while there was a drastic decrease in bare soil and water bodies as a result of the trend in development of this area within this period. Vegetation cover reduced from 58.03% in 1986 to about 52.09% in 2013. It is evident that Orlu is developing rapidly with respect to land use change as there has been rapid increase in socio-economic activities of the population. Consequently, there is an increase in the runoff level in the area as a result of various construction works going on in the area. This has resulted in high rate of siltation in the water bodies and their consequent shrinkage.


Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Heavy Metal Contamination of Soils alongside Awka- Enugu Road, Southeastern Nigeria

D. E. Ezemokwe, C. B. Ichu, J. N. Okoro, A. I. Opara

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2017/34865

Fourteen top soil samples were collected from old Awka-Enugu road passing through Obioma, Nsude, Ngwo and Abor communities. Samples were taken from a depth of 10-15cm after making a hole with a pick axe. Total concentrations of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co), and chromium (Cr) were determined using a Buck 210 VGP atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS).Soil contamination was evaluated with pollution index (Pi) and index of enrichment factor (EF) concept. The enrichment factor of copper (Cu) was observed to be generally low across the study area. This implies that Cu toxicity in the area is not significant. However, the enrichment and pollution indices of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were observed to be high within the study area.The study area was observed to be highly contaminated by cadmium and lead but moderately contaminated with respect to nickel, zinc and chromium. The enrichment and pollution trends of the metals in descending order shows Cd > Pb > Ni > Zn > Cu > Cr > Co. In summary, the total heavy metal concentrations of soils studied were slightly higher than previously reported levels for similar soils which suggest some degree of heavy metal pollution.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimation of Biophysical Properties in Lower River Kaduna Catchment Area Kaduna, Nigeria

Isa Zaharaddeen, Seidu O. Muhammad, Auwal F. Abdussalam, Abel Goji Richard, Ibrahim Ismail Kagarko

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2017/32960

Understanding the nature and composition of vegetation resources in Nigeria is very valuable. Biophysical properties of lower river Kaduna catchment area was estimated. ModisTerra imageries from 2000-2014 were used to extract NDVI and Kc. Mann- Kendall and Sen’s Slope analysis were computed for both the indices. The results of the study revealed that both the indices exhibited a similar pattern of vegetation variation. It also indicates that the Afaka forest reserve has the highest NDVI and Kc value. The result also reveals that during spring and autumn there is an increase of vegetation while winter and summer, as well as that of annual, indicate a decrease of vegetation This result shows a depletion of the vegetation which might be a consequence of human activities particularly agricultural purposes and deforestation as well as climate variability. It also has implication for global carbon dioxide loading and temperature.


Open Access Review Article

Effect of Climate Change on Soil Productivity in Developing Countries

A. O. Fayiga, U. K. Saha

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-22
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2017/35485

Climatic change may occur due to high greenhouse gas emissions arising from dependence on solid fuel which triggers frequent environmental disasters such as extreme heat, droughts, floods, cyclones in many developing countries. Agriculture is sensitive to climate change in developing countries because they are mostly dependent on rainfall to meet crop water requirements. The objective of this paper is to review current literature on the impacts of climate variability on soil productivity in developing countries in order to improve crop production, ensure food security and economic development. There are numerous reports on adaptation to climate change but studies on estimation of greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural settings are either missing or scarce in developing countries. Soil organic matter has been identified as the most important factor that affects the productivity of the soil and determines crop yields. However, extreme heat can cause a decline in soil productivity by increasing soil organic matter decomposition and decreasing soil available water. Lower available water has led to the use of wastewater or sewage for irrigation which can cause soil pollution. There are also reports of increasing water logging and nutrient losses via leaching and run off under flooding conditions. Sea level rise has caused an increase in soil salinity of coastal areas with devastating effects such as total loss of rice fields. Sequestration of carbon in trees, soil and microorganisms are major mitigation strategies because carbon dioxide is the most abundant greenhouse gas. Various mitigation strategies for reducing methane and nitrous oxide emissions in rice fields are also discussed. Conservation agriculture and tillage may be used to increase infiltration, conserve soil water and preserve soil organic carbon under drought or extreme heat. Adoption of conservation agriculture and [minimum or no-] tillage will help reduce economic losses to the farmers and increase crop yield. The adaptation and mitigation of climate change in developing countries is limited by social, economic and political factors. Adoption of low emission strategies and enforcement of environmental laws by developing countries will help reduce the frequency and impact of extreme climatic events.