Open Access Original Research Article

Geospatial Assessment of Suitable Landfill Sites Location in Owerri

T. S. Ademiju, K. O. E. Ukaegbu

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2017/34112

This study was done with the aim to map the present waste disposal sites in the city, to prepare a landfill suitability map of the area, to recommend the best and the most suitable locations to site the dump sites/ landfills based on a multi criteria decision making technique and GIS.

It was carried out in the city of Owerri, capital of Imo state, South Eastern part of Nigeria, from May to August 2016.

Data used in this research work were the coordinates taken at the existing landfill sites (Table 1), a Landsat 8 Satellite Imagery and a Shuttle Radar Topographic Mapper (SRTM). Arc GIS v 10.2 and Erdas Imagine 2014 were used to analyze the data. Selected criteria were mapped using the GIS technique and spatial analytic tools, then different constraint map layers were overlaid to obtain a potential suitability map.

The results showed ten proposed landfill sites at Awaka, Obinze, Amone, Okuku, Irete, Amaeze, Ihiagwa and Imeabam, with the site at Imeabam, being the most suitable.

A more efficient waste disposal system can be developed if GIS is used more in decision making as was illustrated in this research work.


Open Access Original Research Article

Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Sulfate Reducing Bacteria in Shrimp Culture Pond Sediment

Devadas Thulasi, Moturi Muralidhar, Ramamoorthy Saraswathy, Jangam Ashok Kumar

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2017/35287

Sulfate reduction, a key process in aquatic sediments is carried out by a group of anaerobic microorganism called sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). High numbers of sulphate reducers in shrimp aquaculture pond sediment deteriorates the soil and water quality, causing physiological stress, thereby reducing the immunity of cultured animal. An attempt was made to evaluate the temporal and spatial distribution of SRB horizontally at different locations viz., water pumping area (WPA), sluice gate (SG) and pond center (PC), and vertically from sediment water interface to 10 cm depth in Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei culture ponds. Physico-chemical characteristics of water and soil were correlated with the number of SRB. Distribution of SRB was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) in the pond sediment nearer to SG (874 MPN/g), followed by PC (272 MPN/g) and WPA (99 MPN/g) and at sediment water interface (751 MPN/g) compared to 10 cm depth (114 MPN/g) of pond profile. Factors like dissolved oxygen and soil redox potential (oxidation to reduction scale), and organic carbon content in soil had a significant negative and positive correlation with SRB numbers. Phylogenetic relationship of SRB targeting SRB groups showed the presence of Desulfonema, Desulfosarcina, Desulfatibacilum, Desulfobotulus, Desulfomicrobium, Desulfococcus, Desulfovibrio and Clostridium genera in shrimp culture pond sediments.


Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluating the Abundance of Soil Macro-Invertebrates in Idoro Community, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

I. K. Esenowo, N. I. Udoidung, A. U. Akpan, D. E. Archibong, I. I. Umoh

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2017/34392

A comparative study of the influence of farmland and waste dump on the abundance and diversity of soil macro invertebrates in Idoro community of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria was investigated between September 2015 and February, 2016. Soil samples were randomly collected at near soil surface layer (10 cm x 10 cm) by extraction using hand trowel into sterile polythene bags. The samples were analysed for macro-invertebrates using standard methods. A total of 249 soil macro invertebrate representing (13) invertebrate taxa belonging to nine (9) orders from six (6) classes and three (3) phyla (comprising of Arthropoda, Mollusca and Annelida) were encountered. In the wastes dump site, 114 invertebrates were encountered, while 135 were encountered in the cultivated farmland, The overall abundance of soil macro invertebrate phyla in both sampling sites were as follows; waste dumpsite (Arthropoda (65.5%) > Mollusca (25.5%) > Annelida (13.4%) and Cultivated farm land (Arthropoda (96.8%) > Mollusca (1.5%) > Annelida (3.0%). In the waste dump site, the percentage abundance of macro invertebrates were Arthropod larvae with (27.1%), Blaniulus guttulatus (22.8%) followed by Pachychilidae sp. (21.1%), while the least were Hogna sp. (Wolf spider) (0.7%). In the cultivated farmland, the percentage abundance of the recorded taxa were Blaniulus guttulatus (millipede) (54.1%), followed by Asiomorpha coarctata (11.1%), Oniscidea sp., Formica rufa, Crytocerus puntulatus, Hogna sp. with (4.4%) respectively, while the least were Veronicella sp. and Oxidus gracilis (0.7%) respectively. Conclusively, the difference in the abundance and diversity of the soil invertebrates between the contrasting habitats could be attributed to land use pattern which have greatly impacted on the soil biotic community structure.


Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Fertility Status of the Soils under Coffee Cultivation in Moshi Rural District, Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

Prosper I. Massawe, Jerome Mrema

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2017/33953

Aims: To study the causes of the decline in coffee production in Moshi Rural District, Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania through evaluating the fertility status of the soils under coffee cultivation.

Study Design: Soils and leaf samples were collected in randomized design.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was undertaken in Moshi Rural District, Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania for the period of 2009/2010.

Methodology: Soils and leaves samples were collected and analyzed in the laboratory using various methods that gave results of physical and chemical properties of soils and leaves respectively.

Results: Some of the physical and chemical properties of the soils from the study area such as textural class of the soils were clay loam, CEC was medium, total N was low, available P was low, and available K was medium. The Ca, Mg, Na, Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe were high. Although, the soil samples had been taken from the same area, but variations were observed during samples analysis. The nutrients content in plant leaves were higher than those in the soils indicating presence of biochemical processes on the plant leaves. The leaves samples results indicated adequate to sufficient nutrients content in plants.

Conclusion: Therefore, since the physical characteristics of the Moshi Rural District soils are good for coffee production the improvement on the chemical characteristics of the soils will enhance the maximum production of coffee.


Open Access Original Research Article

Toxicity and Histological Effects of Two Liquid Soaps on African Mud Catfish (Clarias gariepinus, Buchell, 1822) Fingerlings

Ivon Ettah, Oju Ibor, Andem Bassey, Joseph Akaninyene, Ndome Christopher

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2017/34778

Aim: To determine the toxicity and histological effects in Clarias gariepinus fingerlings exposed to different concentrations of liquid soaps.

Study Design/Methodology: A total of 500 C. gariepinus fingerlings with a mean weight of 1.7 ± 0.2 g were purchased from the University of Calabar fish farm. Samples were carefully collected and transferred to a transparent rectangular plastic container of 60 × 30 cm3 and transported to the postgraduate research laboratory, Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria. Fish specimen were transferred into a laboratory aquarium (80 x 30 x 30 cm3), each containing 80 litres of water and allowed to acclimate under laboratory conditions of 30.02 ± 0.09°C and a pH of 8.0 for two weeks. Twenty-five (25) fingerlings were used for each aquarium exposed to four (4) different concentrations of the two soaps (GBC car wash and morning fresh) and the control group. The fingerlings were exposed to 0.00, 400, 450, 500 and 550 ppm of the two soaps and the experiment was done in duplicate. The mean weight of fingerlings used for the study was 1.7 ± 0.2 g. The mortality data trend of fingerlings exposed to different concentrations of the soaps were dependent on the concentration and exposure duration.

Results: The result of the probit transformation revealed that mortality rate increased linearly with increase in concentration of the soaps. The regression equations for the probit transformation of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings exposed to different concentration of GBC and morning fresh were y = 4.7546x – 0.6244 and y = 6.2557x – 0.6175 respectively. The 96 hours LC50 value of GBC car wash and morning fresh liquid soap on C. gariepinus fingerlings were 5.40 and 5.80 respectively. The low LC50 value for the fingerlings exposed to the soaps showed a high toxicity of the two liquid soaps. Distress behaviour was observed; they showed gasping of air, erratic swimming, piping and frequent surfacing.

Conclusion: The study revealed that GBC and morning fresh liquid soaps resulted in several histological alterations in the gills ranging from erosion of secondary gill lamellae, fusion of gill lamellae and hyperplasic /erosion of gill lamellae. GBC car wash liquid soap was slightly more toxic to the test organism than morning fresh liquid soap, suggesting that the chemical constituents of GBC car wash may have more effects in other exposed non target organisms in the environment. Government should enlighten and sensitize the public on the lethal and sub-lethal effects of soap effluents to our eco-system as well as enforce against their discharges into our environment, in order to maintain a healthy aquatic environment.