Open Access Original Research Article

Design of Slow Sand Filter Technology for Rural Water Treatment in Girei, Adamawa State, North Eastern Nigeria

B. A. Ankidawa, A. A. Tope

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2017/34395

Treatment of water has a great influence on the use of water for domestic use both in rural and urban areas. Slow sand filtration involves the use of beds of sand for the filtration of water. The reason for designing slow sand filter for rural water treatment is to make treatment of water easy and qualitative. This research involves the use of three tanks, filter beds, filter media and filtrate tanks. Raw water is filtered by the layers of different sand particles, and conveyed by pipe after filtration to the filter media that has diatomite as the sieving agent which filters the water before been conveyed into the filtrate tank. From test carried out, the result shows that slow sand filter with filter technology is moderately efficient for water treatment. The design of slow sand filter technology applied appropriate technology; hence the ease of filtering raw water as well as improvement in taste and odor of water being treated was achieved. However, chemical and biological contaminants were not considered in this research.

Open Access Original Research Article

Treatment of Industrial Effluent of the Kaduna Refining and Petrochemical Company Using Rice Husk

Samaila A. Sati, Mary O. Iyeri

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2017/34315

Aim: The aim of the study was to test and assess the effectiveness of rice husk in the treatment of petroleum refinery effluents or waste water using the Kaduna Refining and Petrochemical Company (KRPC) as platform.

Place of Study: Kaduna Refining and Petrochemical Company Limited (KRPC) is located in the southern part of Kaduna State, Nigeria.

Methodology: The rice husk was obtained from a rice mill in the railway station market of Kaduna metropolis, and conditioned in accordance with standard procedures. Its characterization was carried out at the National Centre for Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Ondo state, Nigeria using X-Ray Fluorescence. The effluent from the refinery was sampled from the designated sampling point in the wastewater treatment plant following standard procedures and then treated with rice husk.

Results: Revealed the ability of the rice husk to remove contaminants such as heavy metals, phenolic compounds, and anions from the effluent. It also reduced the effluent turbidity, total solid content, and chemical oxygen demand. The efficiency of rice husk decontamination capacity was lower than that of chemical treatment in Kaduna Refining and Petrochemical Company.

Conclusion: Rice husk can be considered a suitable material for the treatment of effluent water from Kaduna Refining and Petrochemical Company, which may reduce the hazard associated with these pollutants.


Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Range Condition and Trend of Ikwe Forest Reserve Igbor, Gwer-East Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria

G. O. Yager, A. A. Alarape, M. S. Bunza

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2017/33752

Public concern over biological resources assessment has grown over the decade due to a decline in resources through habitat fragmentation. The study was designed to evaluate the range condition and trend of Ikwe Forest Reserve in Gwer-East local government area of Benue State, Nigeria. Assessment of herbaceous cover and composition, woody plant/shrubs density and plant vigor were carried out in randomly selected sample plots. Litter cover was determined by step point transect method, while erosion and its extent were assessed by presence and degree of gullies. Data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results obtained showed that the herbaceous cover composed of perennials (39%) and annuals (61%). Mean litter cover and mean tree/shrub density were 37% and 252 trees and shrubs per hectare. The relative density of general herbaceous species shows that Ludwigia decurrens was the highest (8.22%) whilst Tephrosia bracteolate was the lowest (1.27%). Grass species shows that pennisetum pendicellatum had the highest relative density at 17.58% (320 species) while Mariscus alternifolis has the lowest at 1.21% (22 species). The range condition was evaluated to be in fair condition (total score of 41.5%) when compared to a key for rating condition, and on a downward trend because of the rapid succession of less desirable plants (annuals and weeds), stunted plants and presence of slight erosion. Range management and improvement practices such as prescribed burning, range seeding and reseeding, control rate of livestock grazing and other sustainable management practices should be put in place to restore the reserve.


Open Access Original Research Article

Potential Health Risks Associated with Consumption of Shallow Well Waters in Informal Settlements in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Mwafubela Vivian, Senkondo Yasin, Msami Joel

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2017/34699

This paper explores the risks associated with the usage of private water supply from shallow wells in informal settlements in Dar es salaam, Tanzania. Studies on spatial location of water sources used by water vendors in relation to potential sources of contaminants in Tanzania are scant in literature and therefore little is documented on the potential health risks posed by such water sources. Data were collected through documents, household survey and interview with officials and local leaders at Nyambwera and Tamla Sub-wards in Dar es Salaam. It was observed that the distance between the wells and pit latrines for most of the households was less than 10 meters which is far below the acceptable standards of 30 m (p<0.001). Given the fact that most plots in the study areas have sizes ranging from 120 m2 to 300 m2 and plot coverage is beyond 90%, space for proper construction of sanitary facilities and shallow wells was extremely limited. The study recommends for close cooperation between sub ward leaders, ward officers and health officials to prevent drilling of wells in close proximity to pit latrines.

Open Access Review Article

Pharmaceuticals in Surface Water and Waste Water Treatment Plant Effluent around the World – A Review

Q. Wang, K. Dölle, J. Tong

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2017/33947

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are “Emerging Contaminants” which widely exist around the word in trace amounts. Evidence by researchers showed that PPCPs can have potential risk on humans and the environment. This paper reviews the occurrence of nine PPCPs for North America, Europe, Asia and Australia based on published literature. The study revealed that industrialized countries in North America and Europe have a higher concentration of PPCPs and with advanced techniques like GC/MS, LC-MS/MS, HPLC/UV and UPLC/MS/MS can precisely analyze the PPCPs from the surface water and waste water effluent.

The paper also reviews technologies for the treatments of removal of those PPCPs. To remove PPCPs in wastewater and surface water, conventional physiochemical methods were not suitable. Advanced methods like reverse osmosis, nano-filtration and constructed wetlands can effectively remove PPCPs. Advanced techniques such as reverse osmosis, nano-filtration and constructed wetlands showed great removal efficiency.