Open Access Original Research Article

Concentration of Heavy Metals in Soils at the Municipal Dumpsite in Calabar Metropolis

V. F. Ediene, S. B. A. Umoetok

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2017/34236

This research was carried out to investigate the levels of heavy metals in soils at the municipal dumpsite in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria. Composite soil samples were collected from five different landscape positions along a toposequence (crest, upper slope, middle slope, lower slope and valley/swamp) at the dumpsite in Calabar. The control sample was taken from an adjacent plot. The control soil was slightly acidic (5.6) while soils from the dumpsite were slightly acidic (6.7 -7.4) to slightly alkaline in reaction. In all the dumpsite locations the levels of Mercury (0.4-1.0 mg/kg), Chromium (0.66 - 200 mg/kg), Nickel (26 - 748.6 mg/kg), Lead (118 - 4548 mg/kg), and Zinc (1248 -2864 mg/kg) were above the permissible limits in soil whereas iron and copper concentrations were within soil limits. Generally the values of Mercury (Hg), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), Zinc (Zn) and Copper (Cu) observed for the dumpsite were higher than the control soil. The metal contamination/pollution index assessment revealed that the soils in the dumpsite were excessively polluted with impending negative effect on plants animal, humans and the environment at large. It is expedient that necessary actions be put in place to sort at source, recycle and reuse wastes materials to minimize the quantity of these toxic metals in the environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of Water Poverty Index (WPI) in Assessing Water Accessibility in the Rural Suburbs of Ogbomoso Zone of Oyo State, Nigeria

T. O. Ogunbode, I. P. Ifabiyi

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2017/34095

Unrestricted access to potable water is required for a healthy living but access to the resource in Nigeria is about 42%. Thus a research to assess accessibility to potable water in the rural areas of Ogbomoso zone of Oyo State Nigeria was conducted using water poverty index combined with field observations. One hundred and fifty questionnaires were administered across fifty randomly selected households in each of the three LGAs (Ogo-Oluwa, Oriire and Surulere LGAs). The results showed that Ogo-Oluwa has 34.70, Oriire, 20.60 and Surulere, 15.26 out of 100 obtainable, which implies that the study area is water poor. Among the causes of this status include peasantry living of the respondents, high level of illiteracy, ignorance of record keeping, poor maintenance of water facilities, erratic power supply among others. To check the problem of poor water accessibility, government and non-governmental agencies should encourage small and medium scale businesses, irrigation farming among others in order to boost the economic status of the rural dwellers. Further investigation into water scarcity scenario in the rural areas is required to establish models for checkmating the water poverty in the rural areas.

Open Access Original Research Article

Geospatial Analysis of Urban Expansion and Its Impact on Vegetation Cover in Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria

Benedine Akpu, Adamu Idris Tanko, David Nyomo Jeb, Bala Dogo

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2017/31149

Cities world-wide are experiencing rapid spatial growth and cities in the less developed countries are already accounting for more of this growth. If such rapid growth is unplanned and uncontrolled, it would have adverse effect on the environment and in most cases, vegetation is highly endangered. Such   removal of vegetation cover causes great harm to the ecosystem and contributes greatly to the global warming effect. The aim of this paper is to analyze urban expansion and its impact on vegetation cover in Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria using geospatial techniques. Landsat MSS imagery of 1973, Landsat TM image obtained in 1990, Landsat ETM+ data of 2001 and Nigerian Sat-1 image (2009) were used. Visual interpretation method was used to sort the various datasets into land use/cover classes. The built-up area and vegetation cover were extracted and the rates of change were ascertained for each of the landcover types. ILWIS 3.3 software was used for the analysis.  The results show that the built-up area increased from 14.3% in 1973 to 44.1% in 2009.  The city was growing at the rate of 5.72% per annum within the period studied. Within the same period, 81.8% of the vegetation cover was lost at an annual rate of 2.3%. The regression analysis revealed a strong positive correlation between increase in built-up land and vegetation loss at 0.175 significant level. The R value of 0.825 and R2 of 0.680 suggests that 68.0% of the vegetation loss in the area was accounted for by built-up. At this rate of vegetation loss and urban expansion, the city may be stripped bare of almost all her vegetation cover within the shortest possible time if no adequate control measure is put in place. This paper recommends: i) the application of geospatial techniques for proper planning and development of Kaduna and other cities ii) proper monitoring of the pattern of urban expansion proper decision making on the planning process.


Open Access Original Research Article

Socio-economic Consequences of Sand Mining along the Victory River in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Simeipiri Wenike Johnbull, Ibama Brown

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2017/34087

Rivers generally have been source of livelihood for several persons in both developed and developing countries, and the rivers have been exploited without recourse to the consequences of this action by those involved. The aim of this research is to assess the social and economic consequences of sand mining on communities along the Victory River. The objectives are to: examine residents’ perception, identify the impacts of sand mining in their domain and propose mitigation measures for moderate and major negative impacts and enhancement measures for positive impacts of sand mining. Hazards and effects management process (HEMP) was used identify the impacts of sand mining on the communities and propose mitigation measures for moderate and major negative impacts and enhancement measures for positive ones. The study adopted multistage sampling technique by identifying all the communities along the Victory River and purposively four (4) communities were selected for the study. Mixed methods were used to collect data with one-hundred and twenty-three (123) structured questionnaires and key informant interviews.  The study found that continuous river sand mining had altered the river courses and increased the width and depth of the Victory River. Livelihood chain of the people have been distorted leading to diminished purchasing power, increased poverty level and other associated social vices. There were also identified socio-economic benefits like employment and revenue generation for the communities. The study recommends that: river channel cross sections should be benchmarked using aerial photographs and periodic hydrographic survey, effective social management plan and enhancement measures be taken, enforcement of relevant laws to control the activities of sand miners and their host communities alike.


Open Access Original Research Article

Microbial Community Profiling of Spent-oil Contaminated Soil in Odukpani, Nigeria

A. A. Unimke, I. U. Bassey, A. O. Mmuoegbulam, H. N. Ikat

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2017/34849

The evaluation of microbiological and heavy metals concentration of oil contaminated soil samples from three different locations, thus; Okurikang, Inuakpa and Creek Town of Odukpani Local Government Area of Cross River State was investigated. The Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB) count ranged from 1.09x103 to 3.6x103cfu/ml, 1.11x103   to 6.4x103 cfu/ml, and 1.26x103 to 4.6X103 cfu/ml for the three locations respectively and the Hydrocarbon Utilizing bacteria (HUB) population obtained ranged from 2.28×103 to 7.24×103cfu/ml, 1.63×103 to 6.96×103cfu/ml and 1.62×103 to 7.57×103cfu/ml respectively foSr the three locations. The percentage occurrence of bacteria isolates for THB includes; Enterobacter cloacae 27.27%, Lactobacillus sp 45.45%, Mycobacterium sp 18.18% and Enterobacter aerogenese 9.09%, the percentage occurrence of bacteria isolates for HUB includes; Acinetobacter calcoaccticus 18.18%, Micrococcus sp 36.36% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 45.45%. The levels of physicochemical properties; pH, Nitrate, Nitrite, Phosphate, Calcium, Magnesium, Potassium, Lead, Cobalt, Nickel, Iron, Ammonia and electrical conductivity obtained varied greatly with  each soil sample. These findings provide adequate information on the microbial levels and heavy metals concentration of oil contaminated soil in Odukpani, Nigeria.