Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Three Geostatistical Interpolation Methods for the Estimation of Average Daily Rainfall

R. E. Daffi, F. B. Wamyil

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2017/34002

This study focuses on evaluating the results from three geostatistical interpolation methods used for the estimation of average daily rainfall in ILWIS 3.7. Rainfall data from nine (9) gauging points over the Upper Dep River Basin, North Central Nigeria were used.The total catchment area is 6076 km2. The moving average method, ordinary kriging technique and nearest point or Thiessen method were used for the interpolation. The rainfall values used were for five (5) days in the same month where rainfall data for at least six (6) of the nine (9) gauging points were recorded, since rain did not fall on the whole the catchment on the same day. The results obtained from the different geostatistical methods used were different but closely similar with the moving average method recording the highest rainfall values for all interpolations. The techniques behind the methods were evaluated and discussed based on the results obtained. From the results it was observed that the moving average method calculated half of the maximum rainfall within the catchment and assigned that value for the average rainfall while in the Thiessen polygon method, the results obtained were similar to the arithmetic average of the rainfall values with all zero points counted as one point. The work demonstrated that remote sensing and GIS techniques are fast in the estimation of average rainfall over a catchment area and the estimated rainfall data for any point within the catchment can be obtained from the output raster maps. It is recommended for GIS users to choose the geostatistical method that best suits their purpose.


Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of Charcoal Production in Gwer West and Gwer East Local Government Areas of Benue State, Nigeria

D. O. Ekhuemelo, J. I. Tsembe, J. I. Amonum

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2017/34362

This study assessed charcoal production in Gwer west and Gwer east Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Benue State, Nigeria. It was aimed at to identifying charcoal producing villages, preferred wood species used, market channels, awareness of the implication of environmental and socio-economic benefits of charcoal production. Snowball sampling technique was used to identify charcoal producing villages. Mult-stage sampling technique was employed to select respondents for data collection. Five villages were randomly selected and visited in each LGAs, in each village, five charcoal producers were chosen. 150 copies of semi-structured questionnaire were used in the two LGAs. Data collected were analyzed with descriptive statistics and one way ANOVA. Results show that there were more male than female in charcoal production business. In Gwer east, preferred wood species for charcoal production were in the order of Prosopis africana (33%) >Khaya senegalensis (27%) >Terminelia avicenniodes (20%) > vitellaria paradoxa (13%) > Burkia africana (7%). In Gwer west, the order of wood preference was Prosopis africana (29%) >Anogeissus leiocarpus (24%) >Burkia africana (19%) >Afzelia africana (14%) >Vitellaria paradoxa (9%) >Erythrophleum suaveolens (5%). In Gwer west LGA, Aondoana village had highest mean of 24.30±13.83 charcoal production while in Gwer East LGA, Taraku had highest mean (11.10±7.84). Number of charcoal producers in the two LGAs were not significant (p<0.05). In Gwer west, charcoal producers in Aondoana village had highest (32%) earnings of between N 201,000 - N 250,000 monthly and highest employees (32.42%). Whereas, in Gwer west LGA, Taraku charcoal producers highest earning was between N 161,000 - N 200,000 monthly and also had highest employee of  31%. There is no significant difference (p<0.05) in the presence of market in the LGAs. The highest percentage earnings in Gwer west and In Gwer east was used for marring (39%, 37%) beside others. Perceived environmental problems by respondents were climate change (30%)>soil erosion (25%) loss of watershed (20%)>loss of habitat (15%) >extinction of plant species (10%) >land dispute (5%). It was concluded that as charcoal production has both positive and negative impact on the producers, inhabitants and the environment, efforts should be made mitigate the negative effects.


Open Access Original Research Article

Community Participation: Panacea for Rural Development Programmes in Rivers State, Nigeria

Ibama Brown, Chikagbum Wocha

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2017/34076

Community participation has been identified as effective driver of rural development in emerging economies while community development committees (CDCs) are key players in implementing rural development programmes in communities. The study aims at assessing the level of participation of communities and community development committees in the provision of public infrastructure in selected communities of Abua/Odual Local Government Area in Rivers. The objectives are to: identify existing mechanism for public participation in rural development process; ascertain the nature and extent of participation in rural development, ascertain the participation level of Community Development Committee (CDC) in implementation of development projects. A cross-sectional study that engaged multistage sampling technique was adopted. Primary and secondary data were collected, analysed and represented with charts, percentages and tables. One hundred (100) respondents were purposively drawn from Otari, Odaga and Omalem communities and stratified sampling was applied to administer questionnaire, only heads of households and members of community development committees formed the respondents. The study found out among other things; that the community development committees (CDCs) in the respective communities were effective in the dissemination of information with respect to projects embarked upon by the government to encourage community participation; there is a dearth of information and lack of synergy between the government agencies charged with the responsibility of planning and implementing rural development policies and the beneficiaries of such development; no Local Planning Authorities at the local government areas. The study recommended that members of the CDCs should form part members of planning and implementation committees in their respective communities, immediate establishment of local planning authorities.


Open Access Original Research Article

Heavy Metal Concentrations in Selected Fishes, and Water from Orogodo River, Agbor, Delta State in Nigeria

O. M. Wangboje, P. C. Ekome, U. I. Efendu

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2017/33608

This study determined heavy metal:- (lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) concentrations in selected fish species including: (Brycinus intermidus, Clarias gariepinus, Parachanna obscura, Ctenopoma kingsleyae, Hemichromis bimaculatus and Phractolaemus ansorgeii) and water from Orogodo River situated in Agbor, Delta State, Nigeria. Furthermore, the health risk exposure to humans who consume the fish and utilized the water in Orogodo River was assessed. The mean (±SD) concentration of the heavy metal in water ranged from 0±0 mg/l for Cd to 0.35±0.29 mg/l for Fe. The mean (±SD) concentration of metals in fish species ranged from 0.06±0.02 mg/kg for Cd in Brycinus intermidus to 187.90±89.59 mg/kg for Fe in Parachanna obscura. The Bioaccumulation Quotient (BQ) values ranged from 4.51 mg/kg for Pb in Hemichromis bimaculatus to 1297.13 mg/kg for Fe in Phractolemus ansorgei. These results imply that continuous intake of fish and water obtained from this river would have cumulative deleterious effect on aquatic organisms and man.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Anthropogenic Activities on Okoklo Forest Reserve in Benue State, Nigeria

B. I. Dagba, L. N. Sambe, J. E. Adia

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2017/33296

Developing countries including Nigeria are saddled with problems emanating from environmental deterioration which has great impact on the forests. This study investigated the anthropogenic activities in Okoklo Forest Reserve Benue State to determine their implication on the sustainable management of forests. Vegetation survey method and questionnaire were employed to             determine the effects of human activities on the reserve. A stratified random sampling design was used in the study for Tectona grandis and Gmelina arborea. Three (3) plots of 20 m x 20 m                were randomly laid in each compartment of the plantation. The plots were located at least 50 m apart. A total of six (6) sample plots of 20 m x 20 m totalling 400 m2 were laid. In each of the                    20x 20 study plots, trees > 20 cm girth at breast height (gbh) were identified, counted and their            girth measured. The girth of trees were grouped into six classes and the frequency of each               were indicated. The study revealed that urbanization, fuel wood collection, bush burning, logging and land clearing ranked the major anthropogenic activities affecting sustainable forest management. It was observed that the class 41-50 had recorded the highest number of trees                     for all the species while no tree was recorded in the 20-30 class. The study therefore concluded that there was degradation of forest which could lead to complete loss of forests and recommended advocacy on the part of Government about the environmental damage caused by these anthropogenic activities and the strict enforcement of forest laws.