Open Access Original Research Article

Floristic Composition and Characterization of Legume Flora in Parklands of Aguié Department, Niger, West Africa

Moussa Soulé, Ado Adamou Matalabi, Ibrahima Djibo Bassirou, Saadou Mahamane

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2017/30608

Due to the absence of a botanical assessment on legume flora in Aguié, so the study was conducted on parklands of Aguié Department to determine the floristic composition and characterize the flora. The characterization consists of determining the legume woody flora density, vertical structure, number of sapling, herbaceous legume biomass and importance socio-economic. Firstly, we used systematic sampling approach to collect legume flora.  A total 51 plots each with a size of 50 m x 50m for all parklands species and within each major quadrat, five sub plots of 5mx5m and 1 m x 1 m were established for the woody regeneration and for herbaceous biomass. All plant species in each plot were recorded. The legume flora was extracted. Some dendrometric parameters such as height, diameter at breast height (1.30 m) and the crown cover were measured. Secondly, we used ethnobotanical questionnaire to collect the socio-economic data about the importance of legume flora to the rural communities. On the other hand, a total of 61 legume species representing 30 genera and the three botanical families namely Fabaceae, Mimosaceae and Caesalpiniaceae. Fabaceae is the floristically the highest family with 30 species representing 13 genera. Mimosaceae constitutes the second family with 16 species representing 7 genera. Caesalpiniaceae was presented with 15 species and 8 genera. The average density of legume woody species is 80 feet per hectare in the parklands. The structural analysis of the parklands revealed that there were two vertical structures namely tree and shrub strata. Ethnobotanical surveys within the parkland communities with 52 people show that legumes play a crucial role in meeting diverse domestic and environmental needs. Among the legumes recorded are cultivated, medicinal, pastoral, ornamental, gum, melliferous and spontaneous human food species. Consequently, based on the results, a further study that will examine the threat to the legume flora is recommended.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Trace Metals in Water, Bottom Sediment, Shrimp and Dependent Human Blood in Ukwuani Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria

Patrick Omoregie Isibor, Tunde Ohiokhioya Thadeus Imoobe

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2017/31978

Trace metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd and Cr) levels were investigated in the water, bottom sediment, shrimp (Macrobrachium vollenhovenii) of Okumeshi River using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (ASS);and blood of individuals that feed on the shrimps using an Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS).The descriptive statistics such as the mean, range and standard error were for significant differences in the heavy metals, nutrients and total hydrocarbons in water and sediment samples was done using ANOVA (P < 0.05). Duncan Multiple Range (DMR) test was used to identify the source of variance using SPSS version 19.1.The order of accumulation in the matrices studied was bottom sediment > shrimp > water > human blood. High level of zinc and copper in human blood can be attributed to their high concentrations in all environmental matrices. It can also be attributed to the high biological accumulation factors of the metals in the shrimp. Copper also has a high essentiality in the respiratory pigment haemocyanin of shrimps. These facts are buttressed by the significant correlations of copper and zinc concentrations in the shrimp with their concentrations in human blood. The observed insalubrity of the shrimps is a prognostic of chronic health hazards to the consumers; which is also a function of the predominant oil exploration activities. Copper had an uninterrupted transit into the blood of the consumers from the aqueous phase. While zinc showed some significant level of biomagnification. The study provided an early signal of likely impending catastrophe; necessitating a proactive regulation of trace metals released into the aquatic system through the prevalent anthropogenic activities; mainly oil exploration.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Feeding Ecology of Primates in Southern Sector of Gashaka-Gumti National Park (Filinga Range), Taraba State, Nigeria

B. T. Tyowua, G. O. Yager, D. E. Samuel

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2017/32899

Primates along with many other animal taxa are forced to cope with large shifts in basic ecological conditions because of rapid anthropogenically induced changes of their habitats. One of the coping strategies for primates is to adjust their diet to these changes. Little is known, however, about primates feeding ecology in fragmented habitats and many species remain studied. The feeding ecology of primates in Gashaka-Gumti National park, Taraba State, Nigeria particularly in Filinga range was studied for six weeks. Direct observation along predetermined transects with the aid of binoculars was used in data collection. The visits were made between 06.00 h – 11.00 h and the evening 15.00 h – 18.00 h in the park. Data were collected from the plants species the primates fed upon. Five species of primates were identified, Papio anubis, Cercopithecus aethiops tantalus, Colobus gureza, Cercopithecus nictans and Cercopithecus mona respectively. Diurnal, arboreal and grouping were observed as feeding behaviour exhibited by the identified primates. The result revealed that primates feed on wide variety of plants with preference for Landolphia owariensis followed by Anogeissus leiocarpus respectively. Each primate displayed a level of selectivity and utilization of the plant species used as food source. Both Baboon and Tantalus monkey utilized Elaeis guineensis most (34.9%, 26.7%) with Vitex doniana and Brachystegia eurycoma being least (5.8%, 5.0%) utilizes. Mona monkey, Black and White Colobus both utilizes Anogeissus leiocarpus most (51.4%, 15.7%) and the least was Landolphia owariensis (10.8%) and Parkia biglobosa (5.1%) respectively. Putty-nosed monkey utilized Landolphia owariensis most (49.2%) and Erythrophleum suaveolens least (34.3%). Black and White Colobus showed a wide selection of food sources, feeding on ten out of fifteen plant species identified, including (Landolphia owariensis) fruits. Mona monkey on the other hand showed a high selectivity, feeding on four out of the total plants species utilized. Primate’s species were observed to feed mostly on leaves and fruits. Conservation and proper management of the range condition of the park should be encouraged to enhance proper co-existence between flora community and fauna species of the area.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Abattoir Effluents on the pH, Organic Matter, Heavy Metal Levels and Microbial Composition of Surrounding Soils in Calabar Municipality

V. F. Ediene, O. B. Iren

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2017/33341

This study examined the impact of abattoir activities on the heavy metal levels and microbial composition in surrounding soils receiving abattoir effluents within Calabar Metropolis. A total of nine composite soil samples were gotten from three locations: Atimbo, Ikot Eneobong and Nasarawa abattoir and environs. The results obtained revealed that the uncontaminated sites (control) had a strongly acidic pH while the abattoir contaminated soils were slightly acidic to slightly alkaline in reaction. Soil organic carbon content was low (< 1.5%) at the control site while the abattoir contaminated sites were high (> 2.0%). The heavy metal levels were highest at the point of direct discharge of abattoir effluents (Cu: 7.27 mg/Kg; Cd: 0.49 mg/Kg; Zn: 47.23 mg/Kg; Pb: 2.62 mg/Kg and Fe: 1071.69 mg/Kg) followed by the surrounding soils (Cu: 6.60 mg/Kg; Cd: 0.40 mg/Kg; Zn: 30.86 mg/Kg; Pb: 1.81 mg/Kg and Fe:871.76 mg/Kg) and the least values were obtained from the control (Cu: 5.45 mg/Kg; Cd: 0.30 mg/Kg; Zn: 16.30 mg/Kg; Pb: 1.60 mg/Kg and Fe 586.25 mg/Kg).  Bacterial communities such as: Escherichia coli, Bacillus spp, Staphylococcus spp, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphycoccus epidermis were isolated from the abattoir effluents contaminated sites. Fungal isolates from the abattoir effluents contaminated soils include: Aspergillus spp, Fusarium sporotrichiodes, Penicillium erichimultum, Absidia spp. and Mucor pusillus. Generally, bacteria and fungi population and diversity were higher in abattoir effluents contaminated soils than the control. The increase in heavy metals levels and the presence of numerous and diverse communities of organisms indicated possible pollution. This calls for concern, as increase levels of heavy metals and invading pathogenic organisms can pollute water bodies as well as affect plant, human and animal health. Therefore, abattoir effluents should be channeled into septic tanks where it can be properly treated before being discharged into the soil environment.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Community Participation in Environmental Conservation and Protection: A Case study of Kida community, Hawul local Government Area of Borno State, Nigeria

Wulha Stephen Bassi, Abubakar Kawu Monguno, Joseph Stephen Bassi

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2017/33070

Environmental natural resource conservation and protection (ENRCP) has been extensively promoted in recent years as an approach for pursuing nature conservation and socioeconomic objectives. The rationale for ENRCP is often compelling and convincing. This article assesses the environmental problems, level of community participation and involvement of government in ENRCP and examine the problems associated with community participation in ENRCP. The study is based on our case study in Kida community, Hawul local government of Borno state, Nigeria. To achieve our objective both quantitative and qualitative data - participant observation, focus group discussions and in-depth interviews for the paper were drawn from a larger mixed methods.The results of this analysis indicates that, despite sincere willingness of communities, serious deficiencies are widely evident. It is evident that problems associated with ENRCP includes indiscriminate tree felling, bush burning, overgrazing and ignorance among community members. It was recommended that government should actively participate by providing seedlings and also educate the local community on the essence and relevance of ENRCP.