Open Access Minireview Article

Plant Genetic Resources (PGR) in Nigeria and the Reality of Climate Change - A Review

Abiwon Babatunde Oluwaseyi

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-24
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2017/31855

Since the beginning of time, nature has fed us, cured and protected us. Today, the roles have been reversed, we need to feed nature and protect it if we must secure a healthy and prosperous future for generations to come. Worldwide analysis shows that biodiversity is threatened by climate change resulting mostly from anthropogenic causes. In Nigeria, there are serious concerns about the rate of biodiversity loss through outright neglect and many manifestations of the challenges posed by the ongoing climate change. Plant genetic resources are fundamental to the establishment of resilient, sustainable agriculture and food security. They provide the raw materials for many medicines and are the genetic stock from which adaptable crop varieties/strains are developed. Therefore, proper conservation and maintenance of the nation’s biodiversity is very important. This paper discourses climate change in Nigeria in relation to plant genetic resources as a specific issue of interest and threat to agriculture and food security. Adaptation strategies are also herein prescribed.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of Improved Extensive Culture System of Shrimp with Special Reference to Soil-water Characteristics in South-West Region of Bangladesh

Md. Motiur Rahman, Md. Ariful Islam, Khan Kamal Uddin Ahmed

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2017/32500

Water and soil quality parameters are important catalyst for gaining sustainable shrimp                         and prawn production. In this context, an investigation was carried out to assess soil-water               quality and production parameters of 9 selected improved extensive shrimp Ghers in                  Bagerhat districts of Bangladesh over a growing cycle. The physico-chemical parameters of soil-water were measured and analyzed by standard methods. Total yield (3,138.46 kg/ha/cycle)                     of fishes was also calculated from the stocking and harvesting data. Most of the parameters                      of soil and water correlated significantly with each other suggesting a high degree of                interactions between different parameters in the system. A pattern of qualitative and               quantitative difference of zooplankton over phytoplankton was recorded in these farms               Therefore, a high degree of salinity fluctuation and iron deposition in waters was also documented. However, significantly lower concentrations of phosphorus in the soil indicated a net retention and trapping of phosphatic nutrients in the environment. Moreover cropping pattern was two cycles (fishes single, paddy single) per year, feeding frequencies was once in daily and fish production ranged from 2076 to 4640 kg/ha/cycle. The present findings indicate that improved                     extensive culture systems served as less health risk and economically viable for sustainable fish production.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Seasonal Crop Raiding of Fruit Trees by Asian Elephants: An Insight into Foraging Preferences from Croplands Abutting Bannerghatta National Park, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

Medha Bantalpad, Aaranya Gayathri, Avinash Krishnan

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2017/31851

This study was undertaken to evaluate factors which potentially influence crop depredation by Asian elephants during the non-cropping season. The study was conducted in a 2.5 km zone abutting Bannerghatta Wildlife Range of Bannerghatta National Park, Karnataka. Three fruit trees which are commonly raided by elephants, namely jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), mango (Mangifera indica) and tamarind (Tamarindus indica) were selected for the study. The convenient sampling approach was adopted to map individual trees of the three species between May and July 2015. Factors such as the phenological stage, the parts of the tree foraged, the distance from the Park boundary and the crop clustering pattern were recorded. Among the 1368 mapped fruit trees, only 4.31% (n = 59) of the trees were found foraged on. However, 79.66% of the damage occurred in trees that were fruiting. There also seemed to be a preference in fruits foraged; A. heterophyllus had the highest damage (8.84%), followed by T. indica (4.20%) and M. indica (3.66%), and the preference ratios for the three species were estimated to be 2.05, 0.97 and 0.85, respectively. The analysis showed that the spatial foraging pattern was also species dependent, with damage in        A. heterophyllus and M. indica recorded at distances more than one km from the Park unlike in the case of T. indica. Refuge cover availability and forage quantity measured through clustering pattern, was not found to positively increase foraging preference. It was also observed that damage in fruiting M. indica were more common in areas which contained both A. heterophyllus and T. indica within 100 m, than areas which had either none or only one of the species present. Spatial analysis revealed a concentration of foraging in the north-western and south-eastern portions of the National Park. Results obtained in the study aided in identifying the indicative factors which influence the crop foraging pattern during the non-cropping season. A detailed long-term study on the foraging ecology of elephants in other human-dominated regions will help strategize effective human-elephant conflict mitigation measures.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Least-biased Extrapolation of a Partial Inventory of Butterfly Fauna in Manas Range (Royal Manas National Park, Bhutan)

Jean Béguinot, Tshering Nidup

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2017/32701

As a rule, most biodiversity inventories at local scales remain more or less incomplete, when dealing with relatively speciose taxonomic groups, such as butterflies in tropical regions. It remains yet possible to take maximum additional advantage of partial inventories and to develop reliable predictions by extrapolating, as accurately as possible, the species accumulation curve beyond the already achieved sampling-size. For this purpose, selecting for the less-biased estimator of the number of missing species (among the wide diversity of currently available solutions) and for the corresponding expression of the species accumulation curve is desirable. Accordingly, implementing the recently derived “least-biased extrapolation procedure” is recommended in this respect.

Least-biased extrapolation procedure was applied to an incomplete inventory of butterfly fauna (91 observed species) carried on by Tshering Nidup and coworkers in the Manas Range (Royal Manas National Park, Bhutan). The estimated total species richness of butterflies for the set of investigated ecosystems reaches around 120 species; accordingly the achieved-sampling completeness is estimated around 76%. Alternative estimations, based on six empirical models of species accumulation curves (namely: Clench, Negative Exponential, Exponential, Logarithmic B, Power and Margalef) prove markedly less accurate than the selected least-biased extrapolation, with Clench model being the less worst, however.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Seasonal Variations in Physico-chemical and Bacteriological Parameters of Ulasi River, Okija, Anambra State

B. M. Onyegeme-Okerenta, C. U. Ogunka-Nnoka

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2017/32660

The water quality conditions between December 2014 and July 2015 at the upstream and downstream of Ulasi River, Okija were evaluated for the influence of rural land use activities. Samples were collected at 50 m in triplicates from each location and the physico-chemical properties of these water samples were evaluated. Samples were stored in containers filled with ice packs and immediately taken to the laboratory to investigate some selected physico-chemical characteristics. Also, bacteriological study was carried out on the samples to check for the presence of coliforms. Results obtained were compared with World Health Organization (WHO) standard for permissible drinking water. Results obtained for turbidity are 205 ± 0.70 (downstream), 25.70 ± 0.00 (upstream) for wet season and 138 ±0.60 (downstream), 15.8 ± 0.03 (upstream) for dry season. Turbidity values were significantly higher (p<0.05) during wet season than dry season and downstream values were significantly higher (p<0.05) than upstream values when compared with WHO standard. pH values were 5.90 ± 0.00 (downstream), 5.91 ± 0.31 (upstream) for wet season and 6.10 ± 0.00 (downstream),6.12 ± 0.11 (upstream) for dry season.The results of bacteriological study showed that all the sampling locations in downstream and upstream containedsignificantly higher (p<0.05) numbers of coliform bacteria and E. coli in both wet and dry seasons. The number of coliform bacteria and E. coli during wet season was 25.00±0.00, 2.00±0.00 (downstream), 17.00±0.00, 1.00±0.00 (upstream), and 18.00±0.02, 2.00±0.00 (downstream), 7.00±0.01, 1.00±0.00 (upstream) respectively during the dry season. Iron, ammonia and TOC content were significantly higher (p<0.05) when compared with WHO standard. This makes the water unsuitable for drinking and human usage and also a threat to the lives of the rural community.