Open Access Original Research Article

Prediction of Compressional Wave Velocity and Formation Bulk Density from Electrical Resistivity in the Sub-surface of South-East and South-South Nigeria

U. K. Afegbua, F. O. Ezomo, O. D. Osahon, J. Braimoh, M. S. Tsalha, H. T. Sanni, D. Duncan, E. S. Usifoh, O. S. Abimaje, A. O. Biose

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2017/31667

The aim of this study is essentially to predict compressional wave velocity (Vp) from electrical resistivity (R) observations in parts of the South-South and South-East Nigeria; and also to compute the formation density (p) of consolidated layers in the subsurface and subsequently establish a relationship between p and Vp for the entire region covered. The known formation and observed resistivity from field surveys formed the baseline data for this study. The methodology involved the collection of known and observed values of electrical resistivity in the study area. Using relevant empirical equations as initial models, the Vp and p were computed and a relationship between Vp and R was established using regression analysis. The predicted Vp and the corresponding p were correlated with results obtained from earlier studies in the area. The model linking the density (p) and compressional velocity (Vp) developed in this study would be useful for future Vp prediction and density computation in the South-South and South-East regions given resistivity values of interest. Findings from this research would also be useful for the estimation of some petrophysical parameters especially in the South-South region.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Least-biased Estimations of True Species Richness of Butterfly Fauna in Sub-urban Sites around Jhansi (India) and the Range of Inter-annual Variation of Species Richness

Jean Béguinot

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2017/32040

As a rule, most biodiversity inventories at local scales remain more or less incomplete, when dealing with relatively speciose taxonomic groups, such as butterfly in tropical regions. Yet, it remains possible to take maximum advantage of partial inventories and to develop reliable predictions by extrapolating the species accumulation curves beyond the already achieved samplings. Besides, due to the wide diversity of available estimators of total species richness, selecting for the less-biased estimator and the associated expression of the species accumulation curve is desirable. Accordingly, the “least-biased extrapolation procedure” is recommended in this respect.

Least-biased extrapolation procedure was applied to nine inventories carried on by Ashok Kumar in (sub-) urban sites in the vicinity of Jhansi (Uttar Pradesh, India), thus providing more accurate evaluations of remnant butterfly species richness in these sites. The range of estimated sampling completeness of inventories was comprised between 65% and 99%, depending on sites and years and the estimated true species richness was comprised between 25 species (along Highway in 2010) and 44 species (Jhansi Fort in 2011).

Importantly, the levels of sampling completeness prove to be poorly correlated with sampling size. This highlights the fact that, contrary to still a current opinion, comparisons between levels of species richness may well remain irrelevant, even when made at a same sampling size (for example by using appropriate “rarefaction” procedure).

Four, out of the nine studied inventories, were conducted at two same sites for two successive years (2010-2011) and, thus, provide opportunity to evaluate the range of inter-annual variations of true species richness of butterfly fauna in this sub-urban context. Inter-annual variations within the range 24% to 48% were registered, according to sites.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Water Supply and Its Implications on Household Income in Kabuku Ndani Ward, Handeni District, Tanzania

Johari Athumani Saladi, Farida S. Salehe

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-26
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2017/30818

Aims: To assess the water supply accessibility and its implications on household income in Kabuku Ndani ward, Handeni district, Tanga Region.

Place and Duration of Study: A cross sectional design was conducted between November 2013 and January 2014 in Kabuku.

Methodology: Questionnaire related to water supply and household income was administered to 90 respondents who were randomly selected. Interviews with five key informants’ explored issues related to water supply and its influence on household income. The hypothesis used states that household’s expenditure on water supply does not significantly affect household income.

Results: Majority of respondents falls between 26-56 years of age. About 42% of respondents did not attend any formal education while 59% had attended formal education. Marital status and occupation showed a significant influence on water supply (P=0.036 and 0.048 respectively). Logistic regression analysis showed that infrastructure, management, occupation, education and age were significant (P=0.05) predictors of household income. People perceived that there was a direct relationship between water supply and household income. Access to water was a big problem which was thought to be caused by insufficient sources of water, outdated infrastructures, administration problems and climate changes. The available water sources could not meet household requirements. In addition long distances from settlements to water sources led people to spend up to 30 minutes fetching 20 litres of water on foot. The water was of poor quality and it could have led to serious waterborne diseases such as typhoid fever. The costs spent on water were alarmingly high and ranged between TZS 36, 000 and 54, 000 per month per household depending on family size.

Conclusion: The study concludes that the water supply problem in Kabuku ward has influence on the limited available household income. Therefore addressing water shortage problems combined efforts at local and national levels are required.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Biochemical Changes in Leaves and Physico-chemical Alterations in Rhizospheric soil of Selected Trees Exposed to Vehicular Pollution at Roadsides at Jabalpur, India

Rupnarayan Sett

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2017/30791

In many South-Asian countries like India, the metropolitan areas get exposed to high air-pollution due to emissions from vehicles driven by the fossil fuels. This research was aimed to detect the effect of dust and gases from automobile exhausts on foliar biochemical changes of roadside vegetation and in physico-chemical properties of soil at Jabalpur, India. Considering the samples collected from least polluted areas as control set with distinction from roadsides of higher air-pollution as experimental, biochemical analyses from tender leaves were done from five pollution-resistant trees viz. Pongamia pinnata, Dalbergia sissoo, Azadirachta indica, Ficus religiosa and Cassia siamea for total carbohydrate, nitrogen, calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, ascorbic acid and phenol. Between the control and experimental samples, for few parameters like sodium and potassium assays, minimum differences in values were found, while for the others, remarkable differences were evident, which might have been happened due to physiological processes like damage-due-to-air-pollutants or resistance-and-protection-to-air-pollutants or for the both. For rhizospheric soil, physico-chemical analyses were done for pH, bulk density, electrical conductivity, cation-exchange capacity, organic carbon, available nitrogen, available potassium, available phosphorus, exchangeable potassium, exchangeable sodium, exchangeable calcium and exchangeable calcium and magnesium. All results both for foliar and soil analyses were expressed as mean values in replicates of 3 samples. Amongst the interesting findings, the following were noted like the pH was found to be higher in Pongamia pinnata, Azadirachta indica and Ficus religiosa, the available nitrogen higher in Pongamia pinnata, Ficus religiosa and Cassia siamea in the polluted samples. For some important individual elements and compounds, the findings have provided a index-guideline indicating their absorption and assimilation with the nutrient molecules. The findings are significant in relating plantation-schedules and monitoring programs in many crowded and polluted cities in tropical South Asian countries.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Physicochemical Characterization of Palm Mill Oil Effluent and Bioremediation of Impacted Soil

R. U. B. Ebana, U. O. Edet, U. M. Ekanemesang, O. O. Effiong

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2017/31221

Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is a waste product from palm oil production which is known to have adverse environmental effect when disposed untreated. The aim of this study was investigate the bioremediation potentials of indigenous bacteria and fungi of POME on impacted soil. Collection of samples, physicochemical characterization of POME and soil samples, microbiological analysis of the POME and lipase assay were all carried out using standard techniques. Replicate readings were then subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA). A total of 7x4 (28) experiments designated A to G were set up. Three experiments from each block received 100 ml, 200 ml and 300 ml of POME while the fourth had no POME. The treatments were as follows: block A (soil only), B (soil +effluent), C(soil +effluent + fungi), D(soil +effluent+ bacteria), E(soil +effluent + bacteria and fungi), F( soil +effluent + chicken droppings) and G (soil +effluent + bacteria, fungi and chicken droppings). After 14 days, water leaf (Talinum triangulare) were planted in all the set ups. Results of the physicochemical analysis of the POME and soil samples showed that addition of POME brought about significant (p < 0.05) changes in these parameters. A total of seven isolates were recovered from the effluent out of which Bacillus species and Aspergillus niger showed the highest lipase activity and were used for the bioremediation. Despite receiving about 300 ml of raw effluent, set ups (F and G), showed the best growth even much better than the A that had no effluent in them. Analysis of variance of the replicate readings of the plant heights showed significance (p < 0.05). However, the lengths and widths of the leaves of F and G performed better than the rest. The findings suggest that palm oil mill effluent impacted soil could be reclaimed using a consortium of indigenous microorganisms and biostimulation.