Open Access Original Research Article

Life Cycle Assessment of Supercritical Coal Power Plant with Carbon Capture and Sequestration in China

Solomon Asante-Okyere, Tang Daqing, Emmanuel Enemuoh, Samuel Kwofie

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2016/31400

Coal has been the primary source of energy in China due to its abundance, with 55% of its consumption in power generation. Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) presents an alternate solution as one of the clean coal utilization technologies being developed in China. This paper used life cycle assessment to compare environmental impacts of carbon capture and sequestration technology on a typical supercritical coal power plant. Results from the environmental impact assessment shows 71% reduction in life cycle greenhouse gas emission for CCS. Also, ionization radiation and ozone depletion potentials decrease in the case of CCS as a result of emissions from ammonia production in supercritical. It was also discovered that other environmental impact categories show significant tradeoffs for CCS due to coal supply chain, energy penalty, direct emissions, waste disposal and infrastructure of capture technology. This is evidently the case as terrestrial acidification increases by 175%, human toxicity increases by 33% and ecotoxicity show increases of 58% to 431% while eutrophication show increases of 22% to 303%. This study therefore, contributes to carbon capture and sequestration technology on supercritical power generation plant in China.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Concentration in Surface Water of Cross River Estuary, Niger Delta, Nigeria

Imaobong Ekwere Daniel, Prince Joe Nna

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2016/31102

An increase of petroleum hydrocarbons levels in the aquatic environments has become worrisome because of their deleterious impact not only on marine organisms but also its effect on human health. In view of the devastating effect of total petroleum hydrocarbons, this study was carried out in order to ascertain the level of contamination of Cross River estuary. Total petroleum hydrocarbon levels were determined in surface water samples collected from various sampling points along Cross River estuary using Gas Chromatography – Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) instrument. Results obtained indicated that the surface water was contaminated with total petroleum hydrocarbon with mean concentration ranging from 13.16181±1.485 to 24.85462±8.058 mg/l compared to the control sample with concentration of 9.68200±0.233 mg/l. Moderately high molecular weight hydrocarbons were dominant in all the sampling stations except in station 3. It was further observed that the level of total petroleum hydrocarbon in this study was high relative to Nigerian permissible limit of 10 mg/l in water. This poses a serious risk to the survival of aquatic organisms and also affects the quality of water used for various purposes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Waste Engine Oil on the Microflora and Physico-chemical Quality of Soils from two West African Countries

Chinenye C. Chijioke-Osuji

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2016/30830

A study of the bioremediation of diverse levels of simulated contamination of waste engine oil (WEO) in soil using natural attenuation, bioaugmentation, mycoremediation and phytoremediation was carried out. This required a preliminary study of the microbiological and physico-chemical quality of waste engine oil contaminated soils from as it were, a “naturally” contaminated site, as a check that the characteristics of the “natural” and simulated samples match. Thus, WEO contaminated soil samples were randomly collected with controls and pooled together respectively from Owerri, Imo State, in the Eastern part of Nigeria and Kumasi in the Ashanti region of Ghana. The most occurring microorganism isolated from all the samples is Bacillus sp. The mean logarithm (mlog) of the total heterotrophic bacterial counts (THBC), total heterotrophic fungal counts (THFC), hydrocarbon utilizing bacterial count (HUBC) and hydrocarbon utilizing fungal counts (HUFC) for the WEO contaminated samples from Kumasi and Owerri were 3.85±0.01 and 3.89±0.01; 3.79±0.07 and 3.98±0.01; 4.37±0.01 and 4.35±0.01 and 4.12±0.02 and 4.22±0.01 respectively. Some Physico-chemical parameters such as pH, total hydrocarbon, total organic carbon, phosphate, nitrate and sulphate content; Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and heavy metals content of the respective samples were analyzed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Enzymatic Conversion of Waste (Rice Husk) into Fermentable Sugar through Diluted Acid Pretreatment

Oche Okpe, Thankgod Omiagocho Isaac, Stanley Irobekhian Reuben Okoduwa, Florence Bose Omoregbe, Chidimma Catherine Ezeiru

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2016/30156

The enzymatic production of fermentable-sugar from rice husk was examined using diluted sulfuric-acid as a pretreatment medium. In this study, 10 g of rice husk were separately pretreated with 0.5 M, 1.0 M and 1.5 M sulfuric acid at different time interval of 2-24 hours, prior to saccharification by cellulase-enzyme at 37°C and pH of 4.5. Then the quantity of monosaccharide produced was determined spectrophotometrically. After two hours of pretreatment, the 1.5 M H2SO4 pretreated samples yielded 88.05 mg/g (39.11%) of glucose, 1.0 M H2SO4  pretreated samples yielded 68.4 mg/g (30.38%), and 0.5M H2SO4 pretreated samples yielded 68.7 mg/g (30.51%) respectively, when compared with the un-pretreated sample (20.4 mg/g). However, after two hours, the production of glucose significantly reduced with increase time, except with 1.0 and 0.5 M H2SO4 pretreated sample which significantly increase at 4-hours (82.5 and 76.5 mg/g respectively). The result suggests that sulfuric acid enhances the release of fermentable-sugar, and that the yield is dependent on the concentration of acid and the time of treatment. The reduction in glucose yield over time as shown in the results could be due to the ability of the acid to liberate sugar which may be washed off during the washing process to remove the acid prior to the hydrolysis by enzyme.

 

Open Access Review Article

Land Resource Regimes in Zambia: Implications on Local Food Systems

Kabwe Harnadih Mubanga

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2016/30373

Aims: To assess the significance of land resource regimes and their implications on rural food systems in Zambia.

Methodology: Literature review of government reports, legislature, journal articles, books and any published material on land resource governance in Zambia.

Findings: The country’s land resources are governed either through statutory or traditional/ customary regimes. Statutory governance is characterized by recipients having exclusive ownership rights to utilized resources while customary resources are under traditional authorities and recipients utilizing customary resources have no exclusive ownership to the resources. Land under customary governance is responsible for most of the food produced for rural and urban consumption. Sustainable governance of these land resources translates into sustainable management of food systems. The study identified allocation of exclusive land and resource property rights to local food producers, devolution of powers from the central government to locals, regulation of urban demand for resources, site-based resource governance, promoting conservation agriculture among local producers and building resilience of food systems towards shocks and stressors as means to improve management of land resource for sustainable food systems.

Conclusion: Natural resource governance in Zambia needs to embrace approaches allowing for innovation, diversification and possible intensification in rural food production.