Open Access Original Research Article

Fuelwood Resource Exploitation and Energy Demand in Selected Local Government Areas of Sokoto State, Nigeria

A. D. Isah, S. B. Shamaki, A. A. Yakubu, A. Babangida, S. Musa

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2016/30633

Fuelwood is the primary source of energy for cooking and warmth in many developing countries. It is the most preferred source of energy in both rural and urban areas. Exploiters/cutters import fuelwood to the urban area where there is high demand for the commodity. Four Local Government Areas (LGAs) in Sokoto State were purposively selected. Four villages from each of the LGAs purposively selected and 10 respondents randomly selected from each village making a total of 160 respondents. Structured questionnaires were administered to elicit information on demographic features of the respondents, income generated, number of bundle exploited, species preferred, sources of fuelwood, impact on the environment, and possible constraints encountered in the business. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Binary logit regression was used to estimate maximum likelihood of the exploiters participation in the enterprise. The result revealed that exploiters generated income based on the numbers of bundles harvested per week, demand for fuelwood was high, and the Combretum spp were the preferred species, respondents acknowledged environmental impact. The binary regression indicated the factors of age, price, family size and number of bundle harvested were significant. Though the coefficient of family size and price per bundle were negative, the log-likelihood 186.503a was significant at 1% signifying a close relationship within the variables. While omnibus test gave a chi square value 21.333 indicating a better significant fit of the model. It was concluded that demand for fuelwood had increased with increase in population, urbanization. Exploiters generate income but harvest indiscriminately without replacement. Fuelwood business exploitation should be regulated by government agencies and woodlot establishment should be encouraged.

Open Access Original Research Article

Zooplankton: A Valuable Environmental Indicator Tool in Reservoir Ecological Management?

Ana Maria Geraldes, Rajeev Pasupuleti

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2016/30662

The trends in zooplankton community were assessed in response to the variations in the trophic state and water quality, in Serra Serrada, a shallow reservoir, with seasonal water level fluctuations, located in the Portuguese part of River Douro Basin. Various ratios were also calculated: (1) the ratio of crustacean abundance to rotifer abundance (NCrust/NRot); (2) the ratio of large (>10 μg) cladoceran abundance to total cladoceran group abundance (NLarge-Clad/NClad); (3) The trophic state indices of rotifer abundance. The reservoir’s hydrological cycle was characterized by three phases. The maximum level phase lasted from January to the beginning of June, the emptying phase from mid-June to the beginning of September and the minimum level phase between mid-September to the beginning of the first autumn/winter rain events. The highest values for total phosphorus, soluble reactive phosphorus, nitrate, and ‘chlorophyll a’ were found during the minimum level phase. Rotifera was the most abundant taxa, except in summer and in autumn where Cladocera and Copepoda were dominant. The ordination space defined by the first two RDA axis accounted for 84.2% of species–environment relations and represented 25.4% of the variation in species data. The ratio NCrust/NRot have shown the highest role of rotifers in the zooplankton community in the low level phase. The ratio NLargeClad/NClad displayed a decreasing trend in the abundance of large-sized cladocerans for the same mentioned period. Redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed a strong influence of temperature, chlorophyll a, soluble reactive phosphorous and total phosphorous to the observed significant associations between the zooplankton assemblage and environmental variables. Therefore, these indices are suitable to be used in reservoir management as rapid tools to evaluate the effects of environmental disturbances with a concern to the reservoir ecological integrity.


Open Access Original Research Article

Height-diameter Relationship Models for Teak (Tectona grandis) Plantation in Nimbia Forest Reserve, Nigeria

S. B. Shamaki, S. O. Akindele, A. D. Isah, I. Mohammed

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2016/30635

The study on height-diameter modelling was carried out on Teak (Tectona grandis) plantation in Nimbia Forest Reserve. Two fit methods (Chapman-Richards and Weibull) were used to model height-diameter relationship. The teak plantation is divided into four forest beats as management unit, therefore, stratified random sampling was employed to select five plots of 20 x 20 m from each forest beat (as stratum), thereby having a total of 20 plots. Stump diameter (Dst), diameter at breast height (Dbh), diameter at middle and top positions (Dm and Dt) of trees, and tree height for all the selected trees were measured. Average Dbh measured 15.00 cm and the mean tree height was 6.77 m. Pseudo coefficient of determination (Pseudo R2) and residual mean square error (RMSE), goodness-of-fit statistics were considered as model selection criteria. Chapman-Richards function produced the best goodness-of-fit statistics for Teak height-diameter modelling. The height-diameter models require additional site factors for better models; hence the need for establishing permanent sample plots (PSP) in order to get additional information from re-measurements of the plots.


Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on Aesthetics Status of Water Quality of River Benue, Makurdi, Nigeria

T. J. Akaahan, S. O. Anaga, S. A. Akogwu

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2016/31544

Continuous activities of man on the bank of river Benue has generated copious quantity of sediments and suspended particles that are washed into the river through the surface runoff. To determine the aesthetic value and quality of River Benue at Makurdi, samples of water were taken at five sampling sites on the bank of river Benue for two years (July 2011-June 2013) were analyzed for colour, turbidity and TSS as aesthetic parameters. The aesthetic parameters of the water samples examined were total suspended solids, turbidity and colour were determined in line with standard methods for the examination of water and waste waters (APHA, 1999). The results of the aesthetic parameters indicate the river water samples with the following characteristics: TSS (62.42±61.57 mg/L), Turbidity (63.08±53.01NTU) and Colour (276.50±163.42TCU). The mean values of turbidity and colour of the water samples were beyond the WHO and the Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality accepted maximum limit. However the suspended solids does not have a control standard value. The result of Analysis of variances (ANOVA) for turbidity and colour was significant during the seasons (P˂0.05), while for TSS it was not significant (P˃0.05). Similarly there was significant correlation at 1% significance between the aesthetic parameters. The regression analysis between TSS and turbidity, TSS and colour and turbidity and colour indicate a relationship with the aesthetic parameters with R2 values of 0.5306, 0.417 and 0.6201 respectively. The study conclude that the clarity of the water of River Benue during the study period was compromised due to the anthropogenic activities on the shoreline of the River that have impacted negatively on the aesthetic quality of the water during the period of the study. It was recommended that human activities on the bank of the River should be controlled, regulated and enforced by the Government regulatory authority.


Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Some Environmental Variables on the Zooplankton Community of Aguieira Reservoir (Iberian Peninsula, Portugal): Spatial and Temporal Trends

Ana Maria Geraldes, Rajeev Pasupuleti, Pedro Silva-Santos

Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJEE/2016/30661

This research was aimed to assess the spatial and temporal trends in the zooplankton community of Aguieira reservoir at the Mondego catchment (Iberian Peninsula, Portugal) in response to some environmental variables. A total of 24 zooplankton as well as water samples were collected in the months of March (spring), May (early summer), September (late summer) and December (winter) of 2010 and 2011. The data from these samples was obtained by the Descriptive (range, percentage) and multivariate statistics (Non-metric Dimensional Scaling (n-MDS), Bray-Curtis distance, Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA). Altogether twenty-three zooplankton species were recorded which included Rotifera (12), Cladocera (8) and Copepoda (3). In terms of abundance, Rotifera (Keratella spp. and Polyarthra sp.) dominated in May and September, while Copepoda (Copidodiaptomus numidicus and Tropocyclops prasinus) overtook in December and March. Cladocera was the least abundant taxon of which Daphnia longispina and Bosmina coregoni has shown abundance from December-March whereas Chydorus sphaericus, Ceriodaphnia pulchella and Diaphanosoma brachyurum from May-September. Results of n-MDS exhibited similar spatial and inter-annual patterns with environmental variables and zooplankton community. However, there were differences between the samples collected in the months of March/December and May/September in both the years. Results of CCA revealed water temperature and algal biomass as the main environmental gradients that influenced the zooplankton community. Since some of the observed changes in the zooplankton composition might be influenced by other complex abiotic/biotic interactions. Therefore this study suggests further research to understand the complexity of the interactions between biological, environmental and climatic parameters of the reservoir. Neverthless, understanding the dynamics and nature of zooplankton communities is crucial for the implementation of good management practices for reservoirs.