Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology https://journalajee.com/index.php/AJEE <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Asian Journal of Environment &amp; Ecology (ISSN: 2456-690X)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/AJEE/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘Environment and Ecology’. This journal facilitates the research and aims to publish papers as long as they are technically correct, scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> en-US contact@journalajee.com (Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology) contact@journalajee.com (Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology) Fri, 02 Oct 2020 11:17:24 +0000 OJS 3.1.1.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 The Structure, Composition, and Health of Remnant Forest Vegetation of West Timor, Indonesia https://journalajee.com/index.php/AJEE/article/view/30186 <p><strong>Aims: </strong>The forest of West Timor has been cleared for different purposes for decades, leaving only small patches of remnant forest vegetation. Understanding tree-shrub composition and structure of this remnant forest vegetation is a vital instrument in assessing the sustainability of forest, species conservation, and management of forest ecosystems. This research was therefore conducted to investigate the current structure and composition pattern of tree-shrub species in such remnant forest vegetation.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> This research project was designed using a vegetation survey employing the Point Centered Quarter Method.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>The research project was conducted in five sample stands of remnant forest vegetation, namely Oliana, Tablolong, Fatukoa, Oenesu, and Alak, the District of Kupang, West Timor, Indonesia, between April to July 2020.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>In each sample stand, the tree-shrub vegetation was surveyed using Point Centered Quarter Method by placing three 100-m-long transects. The first transect was placed at random and the second and third transects were placed parallel to the first, with a distance of 100 m between two transects. Sample points were then determined in an interval of 10 m along each transect to construct four quarters. In each quarter, the nearest tree or shrub (≥ 1 m height) to the sample point was identified and the distance measured. For each tree or shrub species, number of individual, dominance, frequency, Importance Value Index (IVI), stem diameter at 0.5 m height, and average value of plant height for each species were determined. Index Similarity (IS) between stands were also calculated using S<em>ø</em>rensen Coefficient.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Of the 600 invidual tree and shrub measured in a total of about 1,500-m-long line transect, about 28 tree-shrub species of 16 families were identified. The number of plant/hectare was 833 and the mean number of species/stand was 9.60 (<em>sd</em> = 1.94). Generally, the number of species and families found in the remnant vegetation community was relatively low compared to that of commonly found in rain forests. The IS between stand was 28.21 (<em>sd</em> = 14.40)%. The highest IS were between stand 1-2 (IS 55.56%) and between stand 1-4<em> (</em>IS 47.62%). The lowest IS were between stand 3-4 and 3-5 (IS 10.53%). Based on the number of species, the five stands of remnant vegetation was dominated by families of <a href="https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fabaceae">Fabaceae</a>, Arecaceae, and Anacardiaceae, but based on the IVI, they were dominated by families of <a href="https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lamiaceae">Lamiaceae</a>, <a href="https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fabaceae">Fabaceae</a>, and <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sapindaceae">Sapindaceae</a>. On the basis of plant height, about 6.15% of the total individual was within the category of small plant (≤2 m) and 3.32% was of big tree (&gt;14 m). However, on the basis of stem diameter, about 27.86% of the total individual was on the category of small plant (≤10 cm) and about 2.99% was of big tree (&gt;130 cm). Most existing species were within the category of small and very small IVI, only about 14.26% of the existing species were within the category of very high IVI (&gt;20%) and 71.43 were within the category of low and very low IVI (&lt;10%). Four most prominent species, namely <em>Tectona grandis</em> Linn., <em>Schleichera oleosa </em>(Lour.), <em>Vachellia nilotica</em> (<a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carl_Linnaeus">L.</a>) P.J.H.Hurter &amp; Mabb., and <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spondias_pinnata"><em>Spondias pinnata</em></a> (L.f.) Kurz contributed to more than 50% IVI in the five stands of remnant vegetation. Among all species found, <em>Leucaena leucocephala</em> (<a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean-Baptiste_Lamarck">Lam.</a>) <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hendrik_de_Wit">de Wit</a>, <em>Caesalpinia pulcherrima </em>(<a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carl_Linnaeus">L.</a>) <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olof_Swartz">Sw.</a>, <em>Sesbania grandiflora </em>(<a href="https://ace.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Carolus_Linnaeus&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1">L.</a>) Poiret, <em>Syzygium cumini</em> (<a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carl_Linnaeus">L.</a>), <em>Pterocarpus indicus </em><a href="https://id.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Carl_Ludwig_Willdenow&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1">Willd.</a>, <em>Pinus mercusii </em><a href="https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jungh.">Jungh.</a> &amp; <a href="https://id.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=De_Vriese&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1">de Vriese</a>, and <em>Acacia auriculiformis </em><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A.Cunn.">A.Cunn.</a> ex <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benth.">Benth.</a> were present in very small IVI. In general, the contribution of invasive species in the stands of remnant vegetation was relatively high (total IVI 56.96%), about a quarter of which were invasive weedy shrub species.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Based on this result it can be concluded that the five stands of remnant forest were in the state of poor health as indicated by the low number of species and families, the low species diversity, the heterogeneous floristic composition as most of species present were in the category of low occurrence, and the dominance of invasive non-native tree and shrub species. Therefore, the forest needs immediate intervention by taking conservation and restoration action to prevent further destruction.</p> Mangadas Lumban Gaol, I Wayan Mudita ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journalajee.com/index.php/AJEE/article/view/30186 Fri, 02 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Challenges and Management Strategies of Non-Timber Forest Products for Sustainability in Nguti Sub Division, South West Region, Cameroon https://journalajee.com/index.php/AJEE/article/view/30187 <p>Nguti is one of the three Sub-divisions in Kupe Muanenguba Division of the South West Region of Cameroon. This Sub-division is endowed with great potentials and diversity in Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) resulting from the eco-floristic composition within the sub-division. The objective of this study is to investigate the challenges that are plaguing the exploitation of NTFPs and present management options for sustainability. Secondary data were collected from published and unpublished sources whereas primary data tools included questionnaires, interviews and participant observations. Findings showed that Nguti Sub-division has endowed with enormous forest entities and rich in several NTFPs ranging from nuts, seeds, barks, leaves, trees and roots as well as several species of bush meat. Five major challenges <em>viz.</em> transformation and storage, government policies and customary regulations, depletion and scarcity of resources, deforestation and poaching as well as population pressure and agricultural activities were observe which attributed in reducing quantity and quality of these resources. For sustainable harvesting and management of these resources, cottage industry must be developed and promoted along with cultivation or domestication of these NTFPs, market chain should be monitored and certain government policies should be framed to regularize harvest and methods of extraction. Controlling of deforestation, poaching, agricultural activities and generating new alternative sources of income will certainly reduce the pressure meted on the available resources in the forest.</p> Ngambong Ngwafu Tita Blandine, Robert Njilla Mengnjo Ngalim, Nfor Frederick ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journalajee.com/index.php/AJEE/article/view/30187 Fri, 02 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000