Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Asian Journal of Environment &amp; Ecology (ISSN: 2456-690X)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/AJEE/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘Environment and Ecology’. This journal facilitates the research and aims to publish papers as long as they are technically correct, scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> en-US (Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology) (Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology) Thu, 30 Sep 2021 08:02:10 +0000 OJS 60 Vulnerability Assessment and Household Preparedness Level to Flood in Ogunpa-Oni Sub River Basin <p>Flood is a natural event that cause varying degree of losses despite initiatives to mitigate its impact. As the drive to retore normalcy in flood riddle areas increases, concerns about the vulnerability of areas in relation to households’ responses to flood has emerged. This study therefore, identified areas vulnerable to flood; elicit households’ sociodemographic attributes and examine their level of preparedness to flood in Ogunpa and Oni River Basin. A GIS-based approach was adopted along with 121 well-structured questionnaires administered to the respondents. A multi-criteria analysis (that considers slope, rainfall, soil type, DEM and NDVI was adopted), descriptive statistic and binary logistic model was used to achieve the objectives. The results from the vulnerability map revealed varying vulnerability status across Ogunpa and Oni River Basin. In addition, the sociodemographic statistics revealed important variables that influences household decision to prepare for flood. It was also known that factors that drive households to prepare for flood vary across households in Ogunpa and Oni River Basin. The study recommends enlightenment campaign on proper refuse disposal, strengthening of environmental regulatory agency, adoption of participatory approach in the buildup of environmental policy and increasing the level of awareness on the need for insurance policy that covers household against disaster such as flood<strong>.</strong></p> T. A. Balogun, M. O. Adamu, T. Alaga, J. E. Adewoyin, S. A. Ajisafe, S. Nuhu ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Urban Growth and Its Impact on Urban Land Cover Change in Akure South Local Government, Ondo State, Nigeria <p>Urban Growth and its Impact on Urban land cover change in Akure South Local Government area was investigated to bridge the knowledge gap created by data deficiency on the nature, scope, and magnitude of urban threat on the land use/land cover type, most especially the agricultural land in the area. This was done through the analysis of Landsat images of three epochs from 2000 through 2010 to 2020. The processing of the satellite images was done in ArcGIS 10.8, while the analysis and 2030 projection were done in Microsoft office excel using the result from the analysis. QGIS was used to remove the scan lines error on the 2010 image. The result showed increasing urban growth (built-up area), reducing vegetation and farmlands, and increasing rock outcrops. The changes vary among the different classification characteristics. Both farmlands and vegetation increased in the first epoch and reduced in the second epoch due to man's urbanization and other socio-economic activities. The increasing change in the second epoch was higher in built-up areas while rock outcrops increased throughout the study period. The research was able to assess the magnitude of farmland and vegetation that have been converted for urban uses over time. It also proved the efficiency of Remote Sensing and GIS technology in urban growth studies.</p> Dada Ibilewa, Mustapha Aliyu, Usman O. Alalu, Taiwo Hassan Abdulrasheed ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 12 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Community Attitudes and Knowledge on Conservation of Rothschild’s Giraffes in Ruma National Park and Mwea National Reserve in Kenya <p>The attitude and conservation knowledge of Rothschild’s giraffe ecosystems by host communities is critical in sustainability of parks and reserves in Kenya. This study was conducted in two different giraffe habitats, namely Ruma National Park and Mwea National Reserve in Kenya. The objective of the study was to assess the attitudes and wildlife conservation knowledge of the local community towards the adjacent protected area. A descriptive research design that involved administering of closed ended questionnaires in the survey was used to obtain data from the local Community.&nbsp; Binary logistic regression was applied on statistical data to ascertain the relationship between independent variables and the dependent variables of the study. To ascertain the intensity of attitudes and knowledge, a likert scale was used.&nbsp; In addition, a statistical significance (p ≤ 0.05) was used to ascertain inferences from the results. The results indicate that, the community’s perception of wildlife conservation Knowledge was moderate χ<sup>2</sup> (1,315) =31.641, p=0.000. Their attitude score based on the rating of the future of the Park and Reserve was low (F (4, 275) = 11.104, p = 0.000). However, the majority of the community (90%) felt the need to be involved further in the process of decision making in matters pertaining to conservation of the park and the reserve. Based on the findings, the study recommends that, Kenya Wildlife Service should involve the community in the decision making and management of these protected areas. In addition, the host communities should be capacity built on wildlife conservation approaches in Ruma National Park and Mwea National Reserve.</p> George Njagi Gathuku, Cecilia Gichuki, Innocent Ngare, Margaret Otieno ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 26 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Profiling and Characterization of Environmental Quality of Leachates from Selected Dumpsites in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria <p>This study profiled and characterized environmental quality of selected dumpsite leachates in Imo State with emphasis on Nekede, Worldbank, Irete and Orji areas of the state. Leachates were collected under stringent sample collection protocols from the selected dumpsites and analyzed. Samples were collected from three different sampling points of the dumpsite and bulked to form representative sample for each sampling site. The samples were analyzed for a number of standard physical and chemical parameters using standard analytical protocols and compared with the Federal Ministry of Environment (FMENV) benchmark. The result of the analysis showed that the values of electrical conductivity, total dissolved solid, temperature, BOD, COD, CO, salinity, sulphate, chloride, turbidity, nickel, chromium, lead, and cadmium were above FMENV limit; while nitrate, sulphate and zinc (from Worldbank, Irete and Orji), were below FMENV detectable limit. The outcome of the study is a pointer to the fact that the assayed leachates have high pollution potentials. There is possibility of gradual buildup of contaminants in the study area’s dumpsites, which could pose a serious threat, including the inhabitants around the vicinity. The study underscores the need for continual monitoring of the dumpsite leachates, and possibly an upgrade to a sustainable engineered landfill, to forestall possible pollution problems of other components of the environment such as aquatic bodies in future.</p> J. K. Okere, J. N. Azorji, P.O, Nzenwa, E.U, Enenebeaku, S. K. Iheagwam ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 27 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Evaporation of Heavy Crude Oil in Soil <p>Heavy crude oil spillage on soil threatens productivity and affects the natural biota of the ecosystem. Evaporation is an important parameter increases crude oil density, viscosity and fraction of lower molecular weight substances which reduce its infiltration into the soil and groundwater. The evaporation of heavy crude oil showed API of 21.5, viscosity of 15mm<sup>2</sup>/s, density 0.8952 g/cm<sup>3</sup>, pour point of 11.37. The crude oil was exposed to solar radiation for 35 days. The percentage reduction in mass of the crude oil and temperature on five day interval showed 8.22(38<sup>O</sup>C) on day 0, on day 5 was 8.13(34<sup>o</sup>C), on day 10 was 5.92(39<sup>o</sup>C), on day 15 was 5.38(39<sup>o</sup>C), on day 20 was 3.16(37<sup>o</sup>C), on day 25 was 2.94(31<sup>o</sup>C), on day 20 was 2.56 (41<sup>o</sup>C) and on day 35 was 1.79(38<sup>o</sup>C). The lighter molecules evaporated first leaving the heavier molecules behind causing a reduction in the rate of evaporation with time. This analysis will be provide insight to modelling oil spill in terrestrial ecosystem.</p> Etini Etefia, L. O. Odokuma ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 03 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of Temporal Variations of Air Pollutant Concentrations in Ogoni Area, Niger Delta Region, Nigeria <p>This study investigated the temporal variations of air pollutant concentrations in Ogoni area, Niger Delta, Nigeria. The study used hourly data measured over 8 hours for 12 months at selected locations within the area. The analyses were based on time series and time variations techniques in Openair packages of R programming software. The variations of air pollutant concentrations by time of day and days of week were simulated. Hours of the day, days of the week and monthly variations were graphically simulated. Variations in the mean concentrations of air pollutants by time were determined at 95 % confidence intervals. Sulphur dioxide (SO<sub>2</sub>), Nitrogen dioxide (NO<sub>2</sub>), ground level Ozone (O<sub>3</sub>) and fine particulate matter (PM<sub>2.5</sub>) concentrations exceeded permissible standards. Air pollutant concentrations showed increase in January, February, November and December compared to other months. Simulation showed that air pollutants varied significantly by hours-of-the-day and days-of-the-week and months-of-the-year. Analysis of temporal variability revealed that air pollutant concentrations increased during weekdays and decreased during weekends. The temporal variability of air pollutants in Ogoni area showed that anthropogenic activities were the main sources of air pollution in the area, therefore further studies are required to determine air pollutant dispersion pattern and evaluation the potential sources of air pollution in the area.</p> B. Yorkor, T. G. Leton, J. N. Ugbebor ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 03 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 SARS-CoV-2 and the Weather: Correlation between COVID-19 and Meteorological Variables in 3 Cities in Mexico <p>Meteorological factors such as temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed and direction are associated with the dispersion of the SARS-CoV-2 virus through aerosols, particles &lt;5μm are suspended in the air being infective at least three hours and dispersing from eight to ten meters. It has been shown that a 10-minute conversation, an infected person produces up to 6000 aerosol particles, which remain in the air from minutes to hours, depending on the prevailing weather conditions.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To establish the correlation between meteorological variables, confirmed cases and deaths from COVID-19 in the 3 most important cities of Mexico.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>: A retrospective ecological study was conducted to evaluate the correlation of meteorological factors with COVID-19 cases and deaths in three Mexican cities.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The correlations between health and meteorological variables show that in the CDMX the meteorological variables that best correlate with the health variables are Temperature (T), Dew Point (DP), Wind speed (WS), Atmospheric Pressure (AP) and Relative Humidity (RH) in that order. In the ZMG are T, WS, RH, DP and AP; and in the ZMM are RH, WS, DP, T and AP.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong> In the 3 Metropolitan Areas showed that the meteorological factors that best correlate with the confirmed cases and deaths from COVID-19 are the T, RH; however, the correlation coefficients are low, so their association with health variables is less than other factors such as social distancing, hand washing, use of antibacterial gel and use of masks.</p> Hermes Ulises Ramirez-Sanchez, Alma Delia Ortiz-Bañuelos, Aida Lucia Fajardo-Montiel ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 10 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Long-Term Changes in Thecomposition, Abundance and Diversity of Phytoplankton Community of Oshika Rivers State <p>This study was aimed at determining the long-term changes in composition, abundance, and diversity of the phytoplankton community of the Oshika freshwater biota. Phytoplankton samples at Oshika lake were collected from the same stations and similar months as in the year 1983 study of the 5000 barrels of oil spill. The samples were handled with optimum care and treated according to standard practices in order to preserve the plankton for further analysis and identification. The results of the analysis showed that the phytoplankton yielded a total of 40 species belonging to three groups in 1983 and 36 species belonging to four groups in 2019. Xanthophyceae was the group absent in 1983 but present in 2019, while Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae and Bacilariophyceae were common to both 1983 and 2019. Generally, the abundance of phytoplankton in each group in 1983 was significantly different from those of 2019. The Chlorophyceae was the most abundant in both 1983(12.31-186.5) and 2019 (1.27-6.58). The diversity indices result showed that the phytoplankton in 1983 (2.123- 2.563) had lower diversity compared to 2019 (2.381- 2.815). The cluster analysis revealed two groups in 1983 viz the generalist and the dry season specialist, while three groups viz the dry season specialist, wet season specialist and the generalist were observed in 2019. More so, greater data variations were observed in 1983 than 2019. Hence, we infer that there were changes in the phytoplankton community structure between 1983 and 2019. There were changes in the biological community structure between 1983 and 2019. These changes cannot be linked to the oil spill but seems more likely a result of natural variation since results of studies on the hydrocarbon values in water were very insignificant. Since the lake-riverine system is subject to flooding it can be concluded that new plankton from unaffected areas are transported into this area during the flood. The mixing of the water over the years leads to the high variable change. The high variable change brings about high species turnover given the unrestricted hydrodynamics of the River Niger flooding system and its influence on the floodplain Oshika lake.</p> Nkechinyere Gladys Nwambara, John Onwuteaka, Onyinye Prince Choko ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Challenges of Low Carbon Public Transport Systems in the Arabian Gulf City: Case of Muscat, Oman <p>The Arabian Gulf cities are growing. The gulf cooperation council states (GCCs) are among the richest and most urbanized in the world. As a major focus on sustainable development of cities, sustainable transportation acts to diminish the city’s energy consumption by providing a public transport system that has greater ecological obligation and societal justice. The study’s significance is to figure out the challenges in the sector of public transport in the city of Muscat. The wide spread of mass transportation plays a significant role in reducing the exhaustion of energy. Also, it contributes to make a better living experience.&nbsp; Provision of sustainable public transport will prevent the increasing number of motor cars and equally accompanied environmental pollution and traffic congestion. The study is based on an in-depth quantitative and qualitative research method to explore the hindrances that are encountered in the way of building sustainable infrastructure of public transport. The findings of the study revealed that public transport system face real challenges in Gulf region, particularly in Muscat. It indicated that for the well-being of Gulf society, the use of public transportation was encouraged and most of the population have their own cars. In addition to it, cultural and social preservations are raised, mainly by the people that act against the operation of public transport system. Due to the substantial effect of clean&nbsp; and&nbsp; sustainable transportation&nbsp; on energy consumption levels, recent years have been marked with a notable trend&nbsp; towards&nbsp; sustainable and&nbsp; low carbon systems, particularly the mass&nbsp; transportation ones.</p> Elnazir Ramadan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 20 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Land Use Practices along Saadani-Wami-Mbiki Wildlife Corridor and their Implications to Wildlife Conservation <p>Saadani-Wami-Mbiki wildlife corridor has been facing conservation threats as a result of various land-use practices (LUP) carried out in and around the corridor. The understanding of changes happening in the corridor over time is important for establishing the management baseline data. This study aimed at identifying land use practices along the Saadani-Wami-Mbiki wildlife corridor and their implications to wildlife conservation. Specifically, the study sought to determine the rate of land cover changes in the corridor between 1975 and 2011 and the effects associated with land use practices on wildlife conservation.<a name="_Toc293155678"></a> The land sat imageries of 1975, 1995, and 2011 were used to assess the rate of vegetation cover changes as a result of various land use practices carried out along. The household survey and Key informants' interview methods were used to obtain socio-economic data which were analyzed using SPSS while GIS data were analyzed using the ERDAS IMAGINE 9.1 &nbsp;&nbsp;and ArcGIS 9.3 programs. In the past 36 years (1975-2011), the cultivated land increased by 25%, settlement by 13%, open forest by 10% while closed forest and grassland decreased by 18% and 3% respectively. Shifting cultivation, overgrazing, charcoal burning, settlements, and poaching were identified as major land use practices threatening wildlife conservation within the corridor. Based on the results, it was recommended that, the Government should formulate a land use management plan and introduce a community-based natural resources management strategy to improve natural resources utilization and reduction of human stress to the corridor.</p> Lawrance Ebenezeri Kileo, Nsajigwa Emmanuel Mbije ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 26 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Review of Mining Regulations and Environmental Sustainability of Artisanal Gold Mining Sector <p>Artisanal and small-scale gold mining imparts on economic development more significantly in developing countries, but it is also responsible for serious environmental deterioration and human health concerns. Despite, the robust environmental legislations focused at mitigating the pernicious environmental and human health effects, little attention has been given to integration of environmental sustainability concepts into these regulations. This paper aims at addressing this gap by utilizing a systematic literature review methodology to analyze regulatory gaps and identify areas for improvement for integration of sustainable development. This study employed a systematic review designed to identify published scholarly studies on artisanal gold mining regulations for their effectiveness on environmental sustainability in the ASGM sector. A total of 159 papers were retrieved from the selected databases, 41 passed the inclusion criteria after a conscientious data analysis forming the evidence synthesis. After a rigorous data analysis, we find that the existing literature on ASGM regulations, largely do not systematically integrate critical issues of environmental sustainability. We found that, the regulations have concentrated on effects of chemicals such as mercury and cyanide mining technologies to minimize pollution and environmental assessments, while at the same time failing to address regulatory components of social issues, lack environmental incentives for the poor miners to improve production, lack of alternative technologies, lack of social securities, economic incentives and relevant trainings and awareness creation on health and safety which will continue to motivate unsustainable operations. It is thus strongly proposed that environmental sustainability concepts should be systematically and simultaneously integrated into ASGM regulations and policies in order to promote community livelihoods while protecting the environment from its rudimentary activities. The existing literature on ASGM regulations is unsystematic and inconsistent with most of it failing to fully address environmental sustainability challenges</p> Leonard L. Tampushi, John M. Onyari, Nzioka J. Muthama ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000