Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology https://journalajee.com/index.php/AJEE <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Asian Journal of Environment &amp; Ecology (ISSN: 2456-690X)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="https://journalajee.com/index.php/AJEE/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘Environment and Ecology’. By not excluding papers based on novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open-access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>NAAS Score: 4.76 (2024)</strong></p> en-US contact@journalajee.com (Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology) contact@journalajee.com (Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology) Thu, 09 May 2024 12:09:58 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.11 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Water Quality and Environmental Health of Lakes in Coimbatore, India: A Comprehensive Study of the Physicochemical Characteristics https://journalajee.com/index.php/AJEE/article/view/560 <p>The deterioration of lake water quality is a major national issue, particularly in regions with industrial activity. This study assesses the water quality of five lakes in Coimbatore, India: Krishnampathi, Ukkadam, Kurichi, Sulur, and Singanallur, between December 2016 and April 2017. Twenty physicochemical parameters were analysed following standard procedures outlined by the American Public Health Association. Twelve heavy metal elements concentration in the lakes was analysed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy. The results of this study revealed that the values of 17 physicochemical parameters fell beyond the WHO recommended pollution levels in all the study sites, except Sodium, Nitrate, and Sulphate. While, the concentration of 10 heavy metal elements determined were within acceptable limits of WHO-recommended standards for drinking water across all lakes, except Fe and Pb. F-test revealed that the concentration of all the physicochemical parameters varied significantly across all the study sites, except for pH (P = .749). Statistical analysis such as principal component analysis was adopted, and the results were discussed on the multivariate relationships of the physiochemical parameters and heavy metal concentrations of the five study sites. Overall, the findings highlight the urgent need for continuous monitoring and comprehensive management strategies to mitigate the deteriorating water quality in the lakes of Coimbatore district, emphasizing the critical importance of addressing the multitude of factors contributing to this environmental challenge.</p> L. Arul Pragasan, T. Gomathi Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajee.com/index.php/AJEE/article/view/560 Mon, 13 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Antimicrobial Resistance and ARGs Detection in Treated Final Effluent from STPs: An Upcoming Challenge to the Environment https://journalajee.com/index.php/AJEE/article/view/561 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The present study analysed the presence of antimicrobial resistance organisms and genes in the final effluent from STPs of hospitals.</p> <p><strong>Study Area and Sampling:</strong> Samples for microbiological analysis were collected from two different hospitals in Trivandrum City and carried out further microbiological analysis.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>In this study, MDRB (Multi Drug Resiatant Bacteria) were detected from the hospital effluent samples collected from two hospitals. Antibiotic susceptibility analysis showed that the 90% screened organisms was resistant to different antibiotics -Tetracycline (30µg), Amikacin (30µg), Gentamycin (10µg), Ciprofloxacin (5µg), Colistin (10µg) and Amoxicillin (30µg)). Metagenomic surveillance of effluent helped to assess the efficacy of STPs, at the same time assessing the local clinical antibiotic resistance condition by detection of the presence of antimicrobial resistance towards antibiotics and their&nbsp; genes (ARGs) in the hospital effluent.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In this study, a total of 3 antibiotic resistant bacterial strains obtained from hospital STP effluent were identified by16S rRNA sequence analysis.&nbsp;The sequences of <em>E.coli, Klebsiella</em> and <em>Enterobacter </em>were submitted in Genbank with accession number MT784125, OM978270 andMN437586 respectively.The final effluent from Hospital 1 showed100% resistance to Tetracycline and 86% resistance to Amoxicillin followed by sensitivity 28%, 22%, 18% and 10% respectively to Ciprofloxacin, Gentamycin, Amikacin and Colistin. The bacterial strains isolated from final effluent of Hospital 2 showed highest resistance to Amikacin and Colistin which is 100% and 86% and 82% resistance to Gentamycin and Ciprofloxacin. The gene primers used for the respective genes above have been amplified in the sample with a higher efficiency of&nbsp;<em>16 SrRNA, ermB&nbsp;</em>and&nbsp;<em>amp</em>C primers showing a lower Cq value. Thus, these three genes were detected in the samples at high amount which showed the prominent use of the consecutive antibiotics in the clinical field</p> Saranya A.S., Lea Mathew, Swarnalatha K, Sheela A Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajee.com/index.php/AJEE/article/view/561 Fri, 17 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Prioritizing Food Waste Management for a Greener Tomorrow Beyond Landfills: Strategies to Shrink our Carbon Footprint through Food Waste Reduction https://journalajee.com/index.php/AJEE/article/view/562 <p>The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are attracting global attention amid concerns over food security and environmental pollution resulting from the expanding global economy and population growth. Food waste that occurs at all stages of processing is thrown into landfills. This food waste is sent to landfills where it decomposes to produce greenhouse gas emissions. A significant portion of waste thrown into landfills is organic kitchen waste that decomposes to produce greenhouse gases responsible for climate change and environmental risks.</p> <p>This observation is that of our results, which point out that poor management of food waste, the landfills which receive it are uncontrolled and thus leaving access to human persons due to the proximity to the residential houses, as well as to insects and animals. Incineration is the main method used to dispose of waste, with very few initiatives for recycling or composting of waste, thus leaving their degradation or incineration in the open air with all the consequences on the carbon footprint and the climate.</p> <p>Initiatives for the good use of waste, in particular: recycling, composting, etc., must be encouraged for the good management of waste and landfill sites in order to preserve our environment from greenhouse gases. For this reason, regulations on waste management and landfills must be considered to prevent the future.</p> Kasamba Ilunga Eric Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajee.com/index.php/AJEE/article/view/562 Wed, 22 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Carbon Emission Pathways of Biodegradable Thermoplastic-based Species in Natural and Simulated Aqueous Conditions https://journalajee.com/index.php/AJEE/article/view/563 <p>This study assessed the carbon emission pathways of the biodegradation processes of bio-based thermoplastic moieties in two aqueous (surface and simulated marine water) environments and its implications on environmental quality. The physicochemical parameters of the aqueous media were determined using standard methods. The American Society for Testing and Materials’ standard was used to assess amount of CO<sub>2 </sub>evolved. Cellulose, bioplastic and polyethylene were inserted in two aquatic environments and arranged thrice in a randomized experimental arrangement of 2x4x3. Ultimate biodegradations of the test films were monitored using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The amount of CO<sub>2</sub> evolved was assayed using the titration method. Data obtained were subjected to descriptive and inferential statistical analyses using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25.0. After biodegradation, the initial values of the physicochemical parameters were within recommended values of the WHO standards with slight (less than 2%) differences. Moreover, CO<sub>2</sub> captured from the two aqueous&nbsp; conditions were lower than the amount of CO<sub>2</sub> evolved in aqueous solution with cellulose which is a natural polymer in this order: 88.725×10<sup>2</sup> mg from the soaked cellulose samples in marine &gt; 85.215×10<sup>2</sup> mg of CO<sub>2</sub> evolved from cellulose entrenched in surface&nbsp; water &gt; 82.758×10<sup>2 </sup>mg of CO<sub>2</sub> evolved from bioplastic soaked in marine water &gt; 82.758×10<sup>2 </sup>mg of CO<sub>2</sub> evolved from bioplastic soaked in surface water &gt; 65.046×10<sup>2</sup> mg of CO<sub>2</sub> evolved from polyethylene soaked in marine water &gt; 60.152×10<sup>2</sup> mg of CO<sub>2</sub> evolved from polyethylene soaked in surface water. Moreover, the SEM results revealed high level of biodegradation and growth of biofilm on the biodegradable thermoplastics while the nylon 6 had little or no biofilm growth because of the recalcitrant nature. This study concluded that some biodegradable thermoplastics can biodegrade totally in aquatic environments without the release of greenhouse gases that could threaten the integrity of the aquatic environment as well as the release of toxic residues.</p> Omotola E. Dada, Adeola A. Bada Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajee.com/index.php/AJEE/article/view/563 Thu, 23 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Human Wildlife Conflicts: The Case of the Olive Baboon (Papio anubis) in the Mbam and Djerem National Park and the Implications for Conservation Attention https://journalajee.com/index.php/AJEE/article/view/564 <p>In Cameroon, studies on adverse conflicts between humans and wildlife have focused mainly on elephants and great apes. The lack of information on monkey conflicts motivated the present study in the periphery of the Mbam Djerem National Park (MDNP) where human-olive baboon conflicts exist (<em>Papio anubis)</em> due to the extension of agricultural land around the park. This study was carried out in two phases: questionnaire survey administered to the population bordering the protected area to determine the crop consumed by olive baboons in the fields and field visits to measure the total area of the field and the devastated areas using a GPS to assess losses per farmer and to determine the control strategies to fight crop raiding. From July 2021 to August 2022, we administered a questionnaire to 171 people, 74 of whom were farmers around the MDNP to examine the human-olive baboon conflicts<em>.</em> Results obtained indicated that human-olive baboons conflicts exist, we have: crop raiding, hunting of olive baboons, bullying, disturbances caused by olive baboons, and domestic animals predation by baboons. Although ecotourism and leisure were cited as other interactions. The crop raided by olive baboons is the origin of the conflicts with Human. Cassava (<em>Manihot esculenta</em>) is the crop most frequently raided by olive baboons in the dry season, followed by maize (<em>Zea mays</em>) and groundnut (<em>Arachis hypogaea</em>) in the rainy season.&nbsp; Despite the use of control strategies such as field patrols, the installation of scarecrows, the use of traps and guns, the guarding of straw huts, and the guarding of dogs. 83% of the respondents lost approximately 25% of their crop annually due to olive baboons, and 5% of the respondents lost 25 to 50% of their crop annually, 4% of the respondents lost approximately 75% of their crop and 8% lost almost nothing. Economic losses were estimated on average at 150.647 ± 21.695 FCFA with a maximum loss of 1.058.000 FCFA [1.765 USD] and a minimum loss of 16.000 FCFA [about 27 USD]. The surface areas damaged annually by olive baboons ranged from 0.2 ha to 2.3 ha. These results showed that the crop raided by olive baboons created a conflict between humans and nature that had a negative impact on the conservation of this monkey and the survival of the local population in this region. To mitigate these conflicts, we suggest sensitizing local population on the use of the gun in the inspection of crop fields and strengthening of day and night field inspection during the crop maturity period.</p> Njikam Aboubacar Sidik Lacatus, Seino Richard Akwanjoh, Taku Awa II, Itoe Constantine Nfor Ngwayi, Sylvie Nguedem Fonkwo Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajee.com/index.php/AJEE/article/view/564 Thu, 23 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Community Perceptions on Environmental Impact Assessments in the Construction of the Toll Road between Solo and New Yogyakarta International Airport, in Indonesia https://journalajee.com/index.php/AJEE/article/view/565 <p><strong>Background and Objective:</strong> The development of toll roads between Solo and New Yogyakarta International Airport of Indonesia is part of the government's endeavor to improve the accessibility, connectivity, and capacity of inter-regional transportation networks in order to considerably boost economic growth through increased regional links. The research will analyze at the socio-cultural circumstances, social conflict, public health, and community views and attitudes about toll road building.</p> <p><strong>Research Methods:</strong> This study employs a qualitative and quantitative technique, which involves in-depth interview observation processes. The data analysis comprises the identification, categorization, and interpretation of community opinions as perceived by 200 respondents from impacted communities.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The majority of respondents were male, 106 (53%), with the highest degree of education being senior high school a total of 118 respondents (59.50%).&nbsp;&nbsp; The majority of their jobs were as private employees number 84 respondents (42%), with an average salary of Rp. 3,195,000. The surrounding community is religious, with 106 respondents (84%) actively engaged in Islamic studies in a mutually beneficial atmosphere, and 171 respondents (88.5%). Conflicts in society are always addressed pleasantly, according to 198 respondents (99%).</p> <p><strong>Theoretical and Practical Implications:</strong> The community does not oppose toll road building, according to 188 respondents (94%) since they feel it would serve regional interests.&nbsp; Environmental impact analysis is carried out in a proportionate manner by incorporating the community through public engagement. Implementation of public consultation throughout ten time periods. The outcomes of public consultations are utilized to provide supporting and critical comments. 42 community figures were chosen as members of the Environmental effect Assessment technical team, which was in charge of overseeing the execution of environmental effect management and monitoring. Changes in public views and attitudes about toll road development must be regulated and monitored to ensure that the public impression of toll roads remains favorable throughout construction.&nbsp; Recommendations: Project implementers are responsible for the impacts caused and comply with all detailed provisions in accordance with management and monitoring plan documents that have been approved by the Ministry of Environment.</p> P. S. Oetari , S. Isworo Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajee.com/index.php/AJEE/article/view/565 Thu, 23 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 An Ethnobotanical Survey of Plants Used by Communities around Jaunsar-Bawar Region of Uttarakhand, India https://journalajee.com/index.php/AJEE/article/view/566 <p>The Jaunsar Bawar region of Uttarakhand, India, is well-known for its rich biodiversity and cultural history, which is inseparably, connected through traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) and ethnobotanical traditions. This work explores the ethnobotanical knowledge and practices amongst the indigenous communities residing in the JaunsarBawar region, of 11 villages in three tehsils: Kalsi, Tyuni, and Chakrata of Uttarakhand state of India. With extensive field studies, literature reviews, surveys using standard questionnaires, and semi-structured interviews with local inhabitants including Vaidyas, Hakeem, and forest government officials, the study tends to document the rich biodiversity of the region and comprehend the relationship between humans and plants. It documents and explores the traditional usage of 65 plant species of different growth habits and forms for medicine, timber, food, fodder, culinary, rituals, and other purposes. Insights of the study aid in the documentation of local plant species and indigenous wisdom of plant use across generations in the tribal region.</p> Kanika, L. R. Lakshmikanta Panda Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajee.com/index.php/AJEE/article/view/566 Tue, 28 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Seepage in an Embankment Dam Using Very Low Frequency Electromagnetic and Geoelectrical Methods https://journalajee.com/index.php/AJEE/article/view/568 <p>Geoephysical surveys involving Very Low Frequency Electromagnetic (VLF-EM), Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) and 2D resistivity imaging were conducted along the embankment of Asejire dam to detect potential seepage zones and assess the integrity of the dam. 750 VLF-EM measurements were made at 10 m station interval using the VLF-EM Equipment. 24 Schlumberger VES were conducted at 20 m interval using resistivity meter and its accessories. The current electrode spacing (AB/2) was varied from 1 m to 100 m. The 2D resistivity profiling employed the dipole-dipole configuration with electrode spacing, a = 20 m and expansion factor, n = 1 - 5. The VLF-EM data were processed and modelled using Fraser Filtering and Karous-Hjelt software to delineate subsurface zones of varying conductivities suggesting anomalous seepage. The VES data were quantitatively interpreted using the partial curve matching technique and 1D resistivity inversion algorithm while the dipole-dipole data were inverted using 2D resistivity inversion procedure. The VLF-EM inverted sections revealed prominently conductive zones indicating anomalous seepage zones beneath the dam embankment. The relatively less conductive zones possibly indicate reduced seepage. The results of VES interpretation revealed three geoelectric layers beneath the dam embankment representing the caprock, core and bedrock. The 2D inverted resistivity sections delineated zones with anomalously low resistivity generally less than 10 Ωm, indicating anomalous seepage, beneath the embankment. This study has demonstrated the effectiveness of combining the VLF and geoelectrical methods for delineating anomalous seepages in the assessment of dam safety. The anomalously low resistivity/high conductive zones identified beneath the dam embankment are suspected anomalous seepage zones which can threaten the integrity of the dam. Routine monitoring and remedial measures are therefore recommended to forestall the failure of the dam.</p> Akinlabi I. A., Olanrewaju S. A. Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajee.com/index.php/AJEE/article/view/568 Sun, 02 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Epiphytic Algae on Dominant Macrophytes in Lotic Ecosystems in the Eastern Flanks of Mount Cameroon https://journalajee.com/index.php/AJEE/article/view/569 <p><strong>Aims: </strong>This study was designed to assess quantitative estimates of epiphyte biomass and diversity on the dominant macrophytes in two rivers in the Eastern flanks of Mount Cameroon.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>Two sets of water samples were collected at the top 10cm of the rivers for nutrient and chlorophyll a determination. A single preliminary collection of algal epiphytes from partially submerged aquatic macrophytes was carried out from the littoral zone of Ndongo and Limbe rivers, between May and June 2023.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The sedimentation technique was employed in the study. Three slides were prepared for each aquatic macrophyte sample for microscopic analysis. Identification was done by comparative morphology using relevant journals and textbooks.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> All variables related to water clarity (TSS, Phytoplankton Chl a, HC) assessed during the study were similar in both rivers. Water clarity based on HC values was below 6 mg/l implying both rivers were clear during the study period. Epiphytic algae identified were recorded from 4 main divisions, namely Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta, Cyanophyta and Euglenophyta. The highest algal diversity in Ndongo was recorded from <em>Commelina</em> <em>benghalensis</em> (H=3.45) with 41 algal species identified. <em>Justicia</em> in Ndongo river had the lowest algal species richness (24) with an algal diversity of 2.91. <em>Nymphaea</em> had the highest algal diversity (H=3.36) and algal species richness (36) in Limbe river. Algal species richness was the same in the two other plant hosts <em>Commelina benghalensis</em> and <em>Colocasia esculentus</em> (29 species per host). The highest algal chlorophyll a was recorded on <em>Nymphaea</em> (621mg/g dry weight) and <em>Commelina benghalensis</em> (644mg/g) in Limbe and Ndongo respectively. Lowest epiphyte Chlorophyll a was recorded in J<em>usticia</em> <em>secunda</em> in Ndongo (607 mg/g).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> All macrophytes studied harbored a large algal flora demonstrating their diverse ecological roles carried out in these rivers. <em>Nymphaea</em> <em>lotus</em> and <em>Commelina</em> <em>benghalensis</em> in Limbe and Ndongo rivers had the highest epiphytic algal biomass.</p> Miranda Egbe Awo, Beatrice Ambo Fonge Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajee.com/index.php/AJEE/article/view/569 Sun, 02 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Bauxite Mining on Heavy Metal Levels in Kara Kara Blue Lake and Associated Active Tailing Pond https://journalajee.com/index.php/AJEE/article/view/572 <p>Bauxite exploration and production have significant negative impacts on ecological systems, primarily due to the high distribution of heavy metals in the environment. Post-bauxite mining reclamation efforts are most times inadequate. As a result, some abandoned pit mines have turned into lakes, now used for recreational activities. This study examines the heavy metal distribution in two locations affected by bauxite mining: the recreational Kara-Kara Blue Lake (BL) and the active Tailing Pond (TP). Using X-ray fluorescence, ten sediment samples from these sites were analysed for metals such as Al, Co, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Ti, and Zn. Data analysis was conducted using Microsoft Excel, SPSS, and JASP software. The heavy metals in the Tailing Pond demonstrated a decreasing sequence of Fe &gt; Ti &gt; Al &gt; Mn &gt; Ni &gt; Cd &gt; Co &gt; Cr &gt; Zn &gt; Pb &gt; Mo &gt; Cu, while in Blue Lake, the order was Ti &gt; Fe &gt; Mn &gt; Co &gt; Cr &gt; Cd &gt; Ni &gt; Mo &gt; Zn &gt; Pb &gt; Cu &gt; Al. The study employed the Contamination Factor (CF) and Pollution Load Index (PLI) to evaluate pollution levels, revealing higher contaminant levels in the tailings pond than in Blue Lake, with PLI values of 1.06 and 0.83, respectively. Although Blue Lake appears relatively unpolluted and suitable for recreation, both lakes' elevated Ni, Cd, and Cr levels necessitate continuous monitoring to mitigate long-term exposure risks.</p> Mayon Adams, Josephine Kawa Maximus, Kerion Husbands Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajee.com/index.php/AJEE/article/view/572 Thu, 06 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Extraction of Alumina from Kaolin found in Gem Mining Sites of Sri Lanka https://journalajee.com/index.php/AJEE/article/view/573 <p>Kaolinitic clay deposits, esteemed as valuable mineral resources in Sri Lanka, are widely distributed throughout the country. Clay deposits in the Ratnapura District are often unearthed during gem mining operations. Unfortunately, excavated deposits are frequently disposed of openly on the ground without undergoing any value-addition process. This practice alters the soil condition of the vicinity, as the clay soil blocks the gravitational flow of rainwater. This environmental impact can be overcome by adding commercial value to these kaolinitic clay deposits. The present study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of extracting alumina from kaolinitic clay found at gem mining sites and to evaluate the potential of the extracted alumina as an adsorbent. Kaolinitic clay samples were collected from a gem mining site in the Ratnapura District. First, kaolin was transformed into metakaolin through calcination, and then alumina was extracted from the metakaolin via acid leaching using HCl as the leaching agent. Aluminum ions were separated from the leaching solution as Al(OH)₃ using NaOH as the precipitant. The precipitated Al(OH)₃ was transformed into alumina by calcination. The adsorption properties of the extracted alumina were evaluated using methylene blue solution as the adsorbate. Kaolin, extracted, and commercial alumina samples were characterized using XRD, XRF, FTIR, and SEM analysis. XRF analysis revealed that kaolin consists of 29.11 % alumina by weight, and the purity of the extracted alumina was 90.03%. The crystalline phase of extracted alumina was identified as the γ phase via XRD analysis. Extracted and commercial alumina exhibited similar trends in the adsorption of methylene blue under varying adsorption parameters. Accordingly, γ-phase alumina with a purity exceeding 90% can be produced from the kaolinitic clay found at the gem mining site under these experimental conditions. The extracted alumina has demonstrated potential for use as an adsorbent, exhibiting compatibility with commercial alumina.</p> Y. D. T. I. Karunarathna , R. C. L. De Silva Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajee.com/index.php/AJEE/article/view/573 Fri, 14 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Physio-chemical Properties and WQI of the Drinking Water in Urban Area of Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh, India https://journalajee.com/index.php/AJEE/article/view/574 <p>This study was estimating the physicochemical parameters of water and preparing the water quality index for drinking water in a residential area of Bilaspur city. Fifty water samples were collected from ten sites and analyzed six parameters of water quality by using the portable multi-parameter water quality meter (Hanna Instruments: HI98194). The results of water quality were statistically different for sites (p&lt;0.001). During the study, the average water pH (8.326±0.67), water temperature (27.349±0.207 °C), dissolved oxygen (7.775±0.034 mg/l), total dissolved solids (526.46±0.781mg/l), electrical conductivity of water (391.6±0.79 mg/l), and oxygen reduction potential (-32.715±0.21 mV) were recorded. The positive correlation was observed between EC and TDS (r = 0.935) and pH and ORP (r = 0.802), while the negative correlation was observed between DO and temperature. The range of the WQI was observed to be 383.67 to 530.87, and there was a statistically difference at for sites (p&lt;0.001).</p> Sandhya Tirkey , Brijendra Pratap Singh , Kamesh, Shailly Misra , Pinaki Prasad Singh , Ruby, Tulika Johri Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajee.com/index.php/AJEE/article/view/574 Sat, 15 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Environmental Conservation Strategies Used in Secondary Schools Align with Guidelines of United Nations Environmental Program: Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Study in a City Setting https://journalajee.com/index.php/AJEE/article/view/575 <p>The climate change crisis might soon be the biggest threat to global human existence if immediate action is not taken to overpower it. In Eastern Uganda, Mbale city is among the most affected areas, and the burden manifests in form of disasters such as long dry spells and floods. One of such floods in this city recently destroyed 5,000 acres of crops and homes of 5,600 people, killed over 30- and cut off clean water for 400,000 people. Schools can create environmentally responsible communities that are able to address this threat, but persistence of the burden in this area depicts unclear gaps in the roles played by these academic institutions. This study therefore examined the environmental conservation strategies used in addressing climate change and related calamities by students and staff of secondary schools in Mbale city, to unravel intervention-gaps and guide the way forward. Conservation strategies, plus factors promoting their adoption and challenges, as well as the perceptions, attitudes, awareness, and knowledge about environmental conservation and climate change were examined in a random sample of 384 secondary school students and staff. Pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaires and Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) were used under the guidelines of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), supplemented with observational surveys and photography. Data was analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistics using STATA version<strong>-</strong>15.0. Graphs were plotted with GraphPad Prism<sup>® </sup>version 9.0.0. Conservation strategies in schools were found to be diverse, involving mainly tree planting (N=339, 91.2%), preservation of green spaces (N=310, 83.3%), harvesting rain water and not damping wastes in water resources (N= 372, 100% each). Reuse of waste plastic bottles to fabricate dustbins was a novel observation. KIIs showed that the use of the school curriculum to support environmental conservation and climate change action was also prominent (N=12, 100%), but was not significantly different from other key strategic approaches such as incentives (<em>χ</em><sup>2 </sup>= 0.992, p = 0.319), and aid from some agencies (<em>χ</em><sup>2 </sup>= 3.200, p = 0.074). Interventions against air pollution were scarce. Determinants of choice of conservation measures were mostly; the school curriculum (N=381, 99.2%), costs (N= 381, 99.2%), land size (N= 352, 91.7%) and education level (N=250, 65.1%). Commonest perceptions on why conservation is vital were; to avert ecological threats (N=372, 100%), and the urge for a clean environment (N=372, 100%). Good attitudes towards conservation were in 269 (70.1%) of the participants; 48.4%, 7.8%, and 7.1% were not aware about biodiversity loss, climate change, and pollution respectively. 58.1% lacked sufficient conservation knowledge. Long dry seasons (100%), financial scarcities (94.8%<strong>),</strong> and high population (98.9%) were the commonest barriers, while low political will (N=12, 3.1%), was minimal.&nbsp;&nbsp; In conclusion, environmental conservation strategies in secondary schools in Mbale city are diverse, largely align with guidelines of UNEP, and are based on the geography, resources, policies, and sociodemographic factors. The commonest challenges were; long dry spells, financial scarcities, population pressure. Redress to these anomalies is desired to enhance the use of secondary schools as hubs for environmentally responsible communities that can address environmental crises like climate change sustainably.</p> Abdulkadir K. Narura, Jamilu E. Ssenku, Ali Kudamba, Shaban A. Okurut, Aidah Namuli, Noor Nansikombi, Joweria Nakizito, Hussein M. Kafeero, Abdul Walusansa Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajee.com/index.php/AJEE/article/view/575 Wed, 19 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Characterization of Microplastics from Otammiri River Imo State, Nigeria https://journalajee.com/index.php/AJEE/article/view/576 <p>This study characterized microplastics from Otammiri River, Imo state, Nigeria. The study was carried out according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) protocol for surface water trawling for microplastics. The microplastics characterized were at the range of 0.3 mm to 5mm which were resistance to wet oxidation and exhibited flotation in a 5M NaCl. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) examination was used to characterize the microplastics for identification.&nbsp; FTIR results revealed that polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE), polyethylene terephthalate (PET) polystyrene (PS), and polyurethane were the predominant polymers (microplastics) found across Otammiri river.</p> Nduka-Chukwudi, Chidimma Adamma , Okereke, Josephat Nwabueze , Mgbemena, Ifeyinwa Celestina , Ezeji, Ethelbert Uchechukwu Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajee.com/index.php/AJEE/article/view/576 Sat, 22 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Natural Resource Conservation and Disaster Management in Flood Mitigation Measures: A Case Study of Chennai Flood https://journalajee.com/index.php/AJEE/article/view/567 <p>Chennai the <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capital_city">capital city</a> of <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tamil_Nadu">Tamil Nadu</a> and the southernmost <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/States_and_territories_of_India">state of India</a> recently got hit by cyclone Michaung, and the impact caused by the cyclone resulted in heavy rainfall. Due to global warming, the impacts of climate change have negative effects on the environment. Though Cyclones and heavy rainfall are natural disasters, the heavy floods that affect the regular lives of the Chennai people are due to inefficient disaster management. People in Chennai faced severe damage to their properties and challenges for their survival, and they almost experienced a man-made disaster. Another main factor is that natural water bodies like rivers, lakes, and ponds are under tremendous pressure due to illegal encroachments and need effective measures for their rejuvenation. This paper emphasises the importance of natural resources and disaster management which will lead to sustainable development.</p> M. Vijay Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajee.com/index.php/AJEE/article/view/567 Sun, 02 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Mangroves as Natural Shields: A Comprehensive Review of Their Role in Mitigating Natural Disasters and Conservation Strategies https://journalajee.com/index.php/AJEE/article/view/559 <p>Mangrove ecosystems play a crucial role in mitigating the impact of natural disasters on coastal regions worldwide. This comprehensive review paper synthesizes multidisciplinary studies to explore the contribution of mangroves in reducing the risk of catastrophes such as storm surges, tsunamis, hurricanes, and coastal erosion. By analysing the complex relationships between mangroves and natural disasters, we delve into factors such as species composition, forest structure, hydrological regimes, and coastal geomorphology. Additionally, we investigate the socioeconomic implications of mangrove conservation and restoration efforts, highlighting their potential to enhance resilience and sustainable development in coastal communities. The paper presents a detailed examination of wave characteristics, types, and attenuation mechanisms, focusing on how mangrove features such as prop roots, knee roots, and pneumatophores influence wave dissipation. We discuss various numerical and statistical models used to predict wave attenuation through mangroves, providing insights into their strengths and limitations. Furthermore, we explore global and India-specific mangrove cover status, important species, and conservation measures, including legal frameworks and initiatives by governmental and non-governmental organizations. Finally, the review underscores the urgency of conserving and restoring mangrove ecosystems to safeguard both human well-being and ecological integrity in the face of escalating climate-related threats. It advocates for evidence-based decision-making and policy development in disaster risk management and climate adaptation, emphasizing the pivotal role of mangroves as natural shields against natural calamities. Overall, this paper contributes to the understanding of mangrove-mediated hazard reduction and provides guidance for maximizing the resilience of coastal communities in an increasingly volatile world.</p> Mugilan S, Manivasakan S, Baranidharan K, Jayabalakrishnan R M, Ragunath K P, Hemalatha P, Ravi R, Krishnamoorthi S Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajee.com/index.php/AJEE/article/view/559 Thu, 09 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Contemporary Farming and Associated Consequences of Climate Change https://journalajee.com/index.php/AJEE/article/view/571 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> This review aims to synthesize current understanding of the multifaceted impacts of climate change on agriculture, examine adaptive strategies to maintain food security, and offer insights into sustainable farming practices.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> The objectives are to: (1) identify the potential causes of climate change, (2) assess its effects on agriculture, and (3) discuss mitigation strategies and sustainable farming practice.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A systematic review of the literature has been performed. We conducted an in-depth study of previous research, reports, and related literature. Sources were selected based on relevance and credibility to provide a thorough examination of the impacts of climate change on agriculture.</p> <p><strong>Analysis: </strong>The analysis focused on categorizing the direct and indirect effects of climate change on agricultural systems, understanding changes in crop yield, plant physiology and metabolism, and evaluating the effectiveness of various mitigation strategies.</p> <p><strong>Result Findings:</strong> The findings indicate that the greenhouse effect, driven by gases such as CO<sub>2</sub>, CH<sub>4</sub>, and H<sub>2</sub>O, leads to global temperature increases. The concentration of these gases is rising, with the global average temperature expected to increase by 2°C by 2100, causing significant economic losses. While this increase has boosted plant growth and productivity through enhanced photosynthesis, the associated rise in temperature counteracts these benefits.</p> <p>Therefore, mitigation strategies such as nutrient management, drip and sprinkler irrigation, and sustainable agricultural practices are essential. Natural farming is a sustainable agricultural practice that offers chemical-free, healthy food while promising to increase farmers' income, improve environmental health, restore soil fertility, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Climate change poses a significant threat to global food and nutritional security by altering agricultural productivity and sustainability. Understanding these impacts and developing effective mitigation strategies is crucial. This review provides valuable insights for policymakers, researchers, and practitioners to address these challenges and ensure resilient agricultural systems capable of sustaining future food security.</p> Navruzova Murodsulton, Aditya P. Rathore, Rahemanali M. Surpura, Smit K. Patel, Sudhanshu Jangir Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajee.com/index.php/AJEE/article/view/571 Wed, 05 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Soil Application of Cyazypyr 20% SC, New Anthranilic Diamide Insecticide against Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Genn. in Brinjal https://journalajee.com/index.php/AJEE/article/view/570 <p>Brinjal <em>Solanum melongena </em>L. is an herbaceous, tropical perennial plant, belongs to the family Solanaceae which is grown for its edible fruit. Among the different major insect pests infesting brinjal, whitefly, <em>Bemicia tabaci </em>(Genn.), is very important under West Bengal condition. The experiment was conducted during the 2013 and 2014 in the University farm at Kalyani, West Bengal state of India. Cv ‘Muktakeshi’ was grown in plots measuring 5 m×5 m, at spacing of 1 m x 0.75 m with three replication. The plots were set out in a randomized block design with six treatments including an untreated check. Five doses of cyazypyr 20% SC (4.5 MAT ,6.0 MAT, 7.5 MAT, 9.0 MAT and, 12 MAT in both year 2013 and 2014) were sprayed every year for their efficacy, After 50 days of treatment cyazypyr 20% SC @ 9.0 and 7.5 MAT (3.33 and 6.87 whiteflies / 5 leaves, respectively) maintained their superiority in controlling whiteflies, while @ 6.0 and 4.5 MAT (7.93 and 8.40 whiteflies / 5 leaves, respectively) and this treatment failed to show any significant difference from untreated control.</p> P. Chand, S. K. Mandal, Abhishek Pati Tiwari, Ankit Yadav Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajee.com/index.php/AJEE/article/view/570 Wed, 05 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000