Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Asian Journal of Environment &amp; Ecology (ISSN: 2456-690X)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/AJEE/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘Environment and Ecology’. This journal facilitates the research and aims to publish papers as long as they are technically correct, scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology 2456-690X Black Carbon - A Silent Contributor to Climate Change <p>Black carbon is a potent climate-warming component of particulate matter formed by the incomplete combustion of fossil-fuels, wood and other fuels. Complete combustion would turn all the carbon in the fuel into carbon dioxide, but combustion is never complete, and CO<sub>2,</sub> CO, volatile organic compounds, organic compounds, and black carbon particles are formed in the process. It contributes to warming by converting incoming solar radiation to heat. When deposited on ice and snow, BC and co-emitted particles reduce surface albedo thereby melting the glaciers. The complex mixture of particulate matter resulting from incomplete combustion is referred as soot. When suspended in the atmosphere, black carbon contributes to warming by converting incoming solar radiations to heat. It also influences cloud formation and impacts regional circulation and rainfall pattern. The Artic and the glaciated regions such as Himalayas are particularly vulnerable to melting as a result. The present paper aims to review the work done on black carbon and its mitigation measure.</p> Shikha Uniyal Gairola Siddharth Shankar Bhatt ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-20 2021-12-20 242 246 10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i430273 Vulnerability Assessment and Household Preparedness Level to Flood in Ogunpa-Oni Sub River Basin <p>Flood is a natural event that cause varying degree of losses despite initiatives to mitigate its impact. As the drive to retore normalcy in flood riddle areas increases, concerns about the vulnerability of areas in relation to households’ responses to flood has emerged. This study therefore, identified areas vulnerable to flood; elicit households’ sociodemographic attributes and examine their level of preparedness to flood in Ogunpa and Oni River Basin. A GIS-based approach was adopted along with 121 well-structured questionnaires administered to the respondents. A multi-criteria analysis (that considers slope, rainfall, soil type, DEM and NDVI was adopted), descriptive statistic and binary logistic model was used to achieve the objectives. The results from the vulnerability map revealed varying vulnerability status across Ogunpa and Oni River Basin. In addition, the sociodemographic statistics revealed important variables that influences household decision to prepare for flood. It was also known that factors that drive households to prepare for flood vary across households in Ogunpa and Oni River Basin. The study recommends enlightenment campaign on proper refuse disposal, strengthening of environmental regulatory agency, adoption of participatory approach in the buildup of environmental policy and increasing the level of awareness on the need for insurance policy that covers household against disaster such as flood<strong>.</strong></p> T. A. Balogun M. O. Adamu T. Alaga J. E. Adewoyin S. A. Ajisafe S. Nuhu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 17 31 10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i430254 Urban Growth and Its Impact on Urban Land Cover Change in Akure South Local Government, Ondo State, Nigeria <p>Urban Growth and its Impact on Urban land cover change in Akure South Local Government area was investigated to bridge the knowledge gap created by data deficiency on the nature, scope, and magnitude of urban threat on the land use/land cover type, most especially the agricultural land in the area. This was done through the analysis of Landsat images of three epochs from 2000 through 2010 to 2020. The processing of the satellite images was done in ArcGIS 10.8, while the analysis and 2030 projection were done in Microsoft office excel using the result from the analysis. QGIS was used to remove the scan lines error on the 2010 image. The result showed increasing urban growth (built-up area), reducing vegetation and farmlands, and increasing rock outcrops. The changes vary among the different classification characteristics. Both farmlands and vegetation increased in the first epoch and reduced in the second epoch due to man's urbanization and other socio-economic activities. The increasing change in the second epoch was higher in built-up areas while rock outcrops increased throughout the study period. The research was able to assess the magnitude of farmland and vegetation that have been converted for urban uses over time. It also proved the efficiency of Remote Sensing and GIS technology in urban growth studies.</p> Dada Ibilewa Mustapha Aliyu Usman O. Alalu Taiwo Hassan Abdulrasheed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-12 2021-10-12 32 40 10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i430255 Community Attitudes and Knowledge on Conservation of Rothschild’s Giraffes in Ruma National Park and Mwea National Reserve in Kenya <p>The attitude and conservation knowledge of Rothschild’s giraffe ecosystems by host communities is critical in sustainability of parks and reserves in Kenya. This study was conducted in two different giraffe habitats, namely Ruma National Park and Mwea National Reserve in Kenya. The objective of the study was to assess the attitudes and wildlife conservation knowledge of the local community towards the adjacent protected area. A descriptive research design that involved administering of closed ended questionnaires in the survey was used to obtain data from the local Community.&nbsp; Binary logistic regression was applied on statistical data to ascertain the relationship between independent variables and the dependent variables of the study. To ascertain the intensity of attitudes and knowledge, a likert scale was used.&nbsp; In addition, a statistical significance (p ≤ 0.05) was used to ascertain inferences from the results. The results indicate that, the community’s perception of wildlife conservation Knowledge was moderate χ<sup>2</sup> (1,315) =31.641, p=0.000. Their attitude score based on the rating of the future of the Park and Reserve was low (F (4, 275) = 11.104, p = 0.000). However, the majority of the community (90%) felt the need to be involved further in the process of decision making in matters pertaining to conservation of the park and the reserve. Based on the findings, the study recommends that, Kenya Wildlife Service should involve the community in the decision making and management of these protected areas. In addition, the host communities should be capacity built on wildlife conservation approaches in Ruma National Park and Mwea National Reserve.</p> George Njagi Gathuku Cecilia Gichuki Innocent Ngare Margaret Otieno ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-26 2021-10-26 41 50 10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i430256 Profiling and Characterization of Environmental Quality of Leachates from Selected Dumpsites in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria <p>This study profiled and characterized environmental quality of selected dumpsite leachates in Imo State with emphasis on Nekede, Worldbank, Irete and Orji areas of the state. Leachates were collected under stringent sample collection protocols from the selected dumpsites and analyzed. Samples were collected from three different sampling points of the dumpsite and bulked to form representative sample for each sampling site. The samples were analyzed for a number of standard physical and chemical parameters using standard analytical protocols and compared with the Federal Ministry of Environment (FMENV) benchmark. The result of the analysis showed that the values of electrical conductivity, total dissolved solid, temperature, BOD, COD, CO, salinity, sulphate, chloride, turbidity, nickel, chromium, lead, and cadmium were above FMENV limit; while nitrate, sulphate and zinc (from Worldbank, Irete and Orji), were below FMENV detectable limit. The outcome of the study is a pointer to the fact that the assayed leachates have high pollution potentials. There is possibility of gradual buildup of contaminants in the study area’s dumpsites, which could pose a serious threat, including the inhabitants around the vicinity. The study underscores the need for continual monitoring of the dumpsite leachates, and possibly an upgrade to a sustainable engineered landfill, to forestall possible pollution problems of other components of the environment such as aquatic bodies in future.</p> J. K. Okere J. N. Azorji P.O, Nzenwa E.U, Enenebeaku S. K. Iheagwam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-27 2021-10-27 51 58 10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i430258 Evaporation of Heavy Crude Oil in Soil <p>Heavy crude oil spillage on soil threatens productivity and affects the natural biota of the ecosystem. Evaporation is an important parameter increases crude oil density, viscosity and fraction of lower molecular weight substances which reduce its infiltration into the soil and groundwater. The evaporation of heavy crude oil showed API of 21.5, viscosity of 15mm<sup>2</sup>/s, density 0.8952 g/cm<sup>3</sup>, pour point of 11.37. The crude oil was exposed to solar radiation for 35 days. The percentage reduction in mass of the crude oil and temperature on five day interval showed 8.22(38<sup>O</sup>C) on day 0, on day 5 was 8.13(34<sup>o</sup>C), on day 10 was 5.92(39<sup>o</sup>C), on day 15 was 5.38(39<sup>o</sup>C), on day 20 was 3.16(37<sup>o</sup>C), on day 25 was 2.94(31<sup>o</sup>C), on day 20 was 2.56 (41<sup>o</sup>C) and on day 35 was 1.79(38<sup>o</sup>C). The lighter molecules evaporated first leaving the heavier molecules behind causing a reduction in the rate of evaporation with time. This analysis will be provide insight to modelling oil spill in terrestrial ecosystem.</p> Etini Etefia L. O. Odokuma ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-11-03 2021-11-03 59 62 10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i430259 Analysis of Temporal Variations of Air Pollutant Concentrations in Ogoni Area, Niger Delta Region, Nigeria <p>This study investigated the temporal variations of air pollutant concentrations in Ogoni area, Niger Delta, Nigeria. The study used hourly data measured over 8 hours for 12 months at selected locations within the area. The analyses were based on time series and time variations techniques in Openair packages of R programming software. The variations of air pollutant concentrations by time of day and days of week were simulated. Hours of the day, days of the week and monthly variations were graphically simulated. Variations in the mean concentrations of air pollutants by time were determined at 95 % confidence intervals. Sulphur dioxide (SO<sub>2</sub>), Nitrogen dioxide (NO<sub>2</sub>), ground level Ozone (O<sub>3</sub>) and fine particulate matter (PM<sub>2.5</sub>) concentrations exceeded permissible standards. Air pollutant concentrations showed increase in January, February, November and December compared to other months. Simulation showed that air pollutants varied significantly by hours-of-the-day and days-of-the-week and months-of-the-year. Analysis of temporal variability revealed that air pollutant concentrations increased during weekdays and decreased during weekends. The temporal variability of air pollutants in Ogoni area showed that anthropogenic activities were the main sources of air pollution in the area, therefore further studies are required to determine air pollutant dispersion pattern and evaluation the potential sources of air pollution in the area.</p> B. Yorkor T. G. Leton J. N. Ugbebor ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-11-03 2021-11-03 63 73 10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i430260 SARS-CoV-2 and the Weather: Correlation between COVID-19 and Meteorological Variables in 3 Cities in Mexico <p>Meteorological factors such as temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed and direction are associated with the dispersion of the SARS-CoV-2 virus through aerosols, particles &lt;5μm are suspended in the air being infective at least three hours and dispersing from eight to ten meters. It has been shown that a 10-minute conversation, an infected person produces up to 6000 aerosol particles, which remain in the air from minutes to hours, depending on the prevailing weather conditions.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To establish the correlation between meteorological variables, confirmed cases and deaths from COVID-19 in the 3 most important cities of Mexico.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>: A retrospective ecological study was conducted to evaluate the correlation of meteorological factors with COVID-19 cases and deaths in three Mexican cities.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The correlations between health and meteorological variables show that in the CDMX the meteorological variables that best correlate with the health variables are Temperature (T), Dew Point (DP), Wind speed (WS), Atmospheric Pressure (AP) and Relative Humidity (RH) in that order. In the ZMG are T, WS, RH, DP and AP; and in the ZMM are RH, WS, DP, T and AP.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong> In the 3 Metropolitan Areas showed that the meteorological factors that best correlate with the confirmed cases and deaths from COVID-19 are the T, RH; however, the correlation coefficients are low, so their association with health variables is less than other factors such as social distancing, hand washing, use of antibacterial gel and use of masks.</p> Hermes Ulises Ramirez-Sanchez Alma Delia Ortiz-Bañuelos Aida Lucia Fajardo-Montiel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-11-10 2021-11-10 74 91 10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i430261 Long-Term Changes in The Composition, Abundance and Diversity of Phytoplankton Community of Oshika Rivers State <p>This study was aimed at determining the long-term changes in composition, abundance, and diversity of the phytoplankton community of the Oshika freshwater biota. Phytoplankton samples at Oshika lake were collected from the same stations and similar months as in the year 1983 study of the 5000 barrels of oil spill. The samples were handled with optimum care and treated according to standard practices in order to preserve the plankton for further analysis and identification. The results of the analysis showed that the phytoplankton yielded a total of 40 species belonging to three groups in 1983 and 36 species belonging to four groups in 2019. Xanthophyceae was the group absent in 1983 but present in 2019, while Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae and Bacilariophyceae were common to both 1983 and 2019. Generally, the abundance of phytoplankton in each group in 1983 was significantly different from those of 2019. The Chlorophyceae was the most abundant in both 1983(12.31-186.5) and 2019 (1.27-6.58). The diversity indices result showed that the phytoplankton in 1983 (2.123- 2.563) had lower diversity compared to 2019 (2.381- 2.815). The cluster analysis revealed two groups in 1983 viz the generalist and the dry season specialist, while three groups viz the dry season specialist, wet season specialist and the generalist were observed in 2019. More so, greater data variations were observed in 1983 than 2019. Hence, we infer that there were changes in the phytoplankton community structure between 1983 and 2019. There were changes in the biological community structure between 1983 and 2019. These changes cannot be linked to the oil spill but seems more likely a result of natural variation since results of studies on the hydrocarbon values in water were very insignificant. Since the lake-riverine system is subject to flooding it can be concluded that new plankton from unaffected areas are transported into this area during the flood. The mixing of the water over the years leads to the high variable change. The high variable change brings about high species turnover given the unrestricted hydrodynamics of the River Niger flooding system and its influence on the floodplain Oshika lake.</p> Nkechinyere Gladys Nwambara John Onwuteaka Onyinye Prince Choko ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-11-15 2021-11-15 92 116 10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i430262 Challenges of Low Carbon Public Transport Systems in the Arabian Gulf City: Case of Muscat, Oman <p>The Arabian Gulf cities are growing. The gulf cooperation council states (GCCs) are among the richest and most urbanized in the world. As a major focus on sustainable development of cities, sustainable transportation acts to diminish the city’s energy consumption by providing a public transport system that has greater ecological obligation and societal justice. The study’s significance is to figure out the challenges in the sector of public transport in the city of Muscat. The wide spread of mass transportation plays a significant role in reducing the exhaustion of energy. Also, it contributes to make a better living experience.&nbsp; Provision of sustainable public transport will prevent the increasing number of motor cars and equally accompanied environmental pollution and traffic congestion. The study is based on an in-depth quantitative and qualitative research method to explore the hindrances that are encountered in the way of building sustainable infrastructure of public transport. The findings of the study revealed that public transport system face real challenges in Gulf region, particularly in Muscat. It indicated that for the well-being of Gulf society, the use of public transportation was encouraged and most of the population have their own cars. In addition to it, cultural and social preservations are raised, mainly by the people that act against the operation of public transport system. Due to the substantial effect of clean&nbsp; and&nbsp; sustainable transportation&nbsp; on energy consumption levels, recent years have been marked with a notable trend&nbsp; towards&nbsp; sustainable and&nbsp; low carbon systems, particularly the mass&nbsp; transportation ones.</p> Elnazir Ramadan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-11-20 2021-11-20 117 125 10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i430263 Land Use Practices along Saadani-Wami-Mbiki Wildlife Corridor and their Implications to Wildlife Conservation <p>Saadani-Wami-Mbiki wildlife corridor has been facing conservation threats as a result of various land-use practices (LUP) carried out in and around the corridor. The understanding of changes happening in the corridor over time is important for establishing the management baseline data. This study aimed at identifying land use practices along the Saadani-Wami-Mbiki wildlife corridor and their implications to wildlife conservation. Specifically, the study sought to determine the rate of land cover changes in the corridor between 1975 and 2011 and the effects associated with land use practices on wildlife conservation.<a name="_Toc293155678"></a> The land sat imageries of 1975, 1995, and 2011 were used to assess the rate of vegetation cover changes as a result of various land use practices carried out along. The household survey and Key informants' interview methods were used to obtain socio-economic data which were analyzed using SPSS while GIS data were analyzed using the ERDAS IMAGINE 9.1 &nbsp;&nbsp;and ArcGIS 9.3 programs. In the past 36 years (1975-2011), the cultivated land increased by 25%, settlement by 13%, open forest by 10% while closed forest and grassland decreased by 18% and 3% respectively. Shifting cultivation, overgrazing, charcoal burning, settlements, and poaching were identified as major land use practices threatening wildlife conservation within the corridor. Based on the results, it was recommended that, the Government should formulate a land use management plan and introduce a community-based natural resources management strategy to improve natural resources utilization and reduction of human stress to the corridor.</p> Lawrance Ebenezeri Kileo Nsajigwa Emmanuel Mbije ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-11-26 2021-11-26 126 143 10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i430264 Effect of Climate Change on Drinking Water Utilities in Nzoia River Basin, Kenya <p>Climate change is already having noticeable effects on water utilities in Nzoia River Basin. Extreme weather and climate-related occurrences are becoming more common and intense, as predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Third Assessment Report. Because most water utilities are unprepared, the repercussions might be severe. The water supply infrastructure is built for resiliency and sustainability of operations during weather events or other circumstances that could potentially interrupt services; but when events that were historically considered to be “100-year” events happen more and more frequently, utilities must prepare for a new normal. These extreme events are occurring or being exceeded more regularly, and as a result, the past may no longer be a reliable predictor of the future. In Nzoia River Basin, the water supply infrastructure currently designed for historical climate conditions is more vulnerable to future weather extremes and climate change. This study assessed the effect of climate change on drinking water utilities in Nzoia River Basin. A cross-sectional survey design was used. Three counties were randomly selected from the basin for study with Busia representing the lower catchment, Kakamega middle catchment and Trans Nzoia upper catchment. The study was carried out from May, 2017 to September, 2017. In-depth expert interviews and brainstorming sessions were used to identify the climate change impacts affecting drinking water utilities experienced in the last ten years in the basin. A carefully selected team of water and climate change experts consisting of decision makers, practitioners, managers, scientists and technology adopters were used to rank the severity of the climate change impacts. Climate change occurring in Nzoia River Basin is expected to have a wide range of consequences for drinking water utilities. By assessing its potential impacts on water utilities, we become better positioned to make improvements today to decrease the future risks. The results of this study provide valuable insights for the national and county governments in preparing to effectively anticipate and respond to the relevant issues that they can expect to face in the coming century.</p> Ernest Othieno Odwori ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-08 2021-12-08 156 170 10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i430266 Multi-Stakeholder Approach in Natural Resources Management: The Case of Mida Creek and Gongoni-Marereni Mangrove Ecosystems in Kilifi County, Kenya <p>Multi-stakeholder approach has an overall improvement in conservation and management of mangrove forests resources, more so with a functional coordination framework among stakeholders. Mida creek and Gongoni-Marereni sites were compared in terms of the presence of the multi-stakeholders and the level of coordination and cooperation among stakeholders in conservation of mangrove forests. Data was gathered through a semi-structured interview questionnaire from Key Informants from the stakeholders present in the two sites. The data collected captured stakeholder presence on site, participation in mangrove conservation, and coordination and cooperation with others. There was a variation in multi-stakeholder participation in the two sites. Gongoni-Marereni site had less stakeholders compared to Mida creek which had more, with the latter having a greater participation of stakeholders. The Gongoni-Marereni site mangroves were degraded while in Mida creek had healthy mangroves.</p> Edward Salehe Mwamuye Mwangome Muye Chongomwa Mark Rayment Sternly Nadir ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-09 2021-12-09 171 180 10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i430267 Vegetation Change Detection in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques from 2000 to 2020 <p>Generally, vegetation change through the conversion of the world’s forest land to other uses has assumed an increasing scale due to the unprecedented growth of the human population which increases the demand for food and land. Some believed that decrease in vegetation in the area is attributed to oil exploration and exploitation activities only. This study aimed to find out the nature of the vegetation change in the region from 2000 to 2020. The data used was remotely sensed images as Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) observed by Terra-MODIS, downloaded via United States Geological Survey (USGS). The Simple Image Differencing was performed on two images (February 18, 2000 and February 18, 2020) using IDRISI software. The result shows that all the states in the Niger Delta region experience both positive and negative change in vegetation cover. The positive change was observed around locations where agricultural plantations exists and within urban areas followed by oil and gas exploration and exploitation that damage the natural forest cover, while negative change was observed around farms where intensive rainy season farming takes place. It was recommended that deforested areas in the region should be reclaimed by planting economic trees as plantation to enhance greenness and maintain balance of the ecosystem. If intensive farming is necessary, it should be practiced sustainably to save the environment.</p> P. O. Phil-Eze Wali Elekwachi L. C. Bosco-Abiahu H. Wizor Collins Abdullahi Muktar O. Afolabi Omobolaji Ihunda C. Eze ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-11 2021-12-11 181 188 10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i430268 The Environmental Implications of the Rohingya Refugee Crisis in Bangladesh <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> The main focus is to find out the environmental challenges that Bangladesh is dealing for the huge influx of Rohingya refugee people to Bangladesh. The research also aims to assess the dynamic situation of the crisis, identify the roles of Bangladesh government, NGOs as well as the International Organisations’ for Rohingya refugee crisis.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>This study is context-dependent on information and an inductive data analysis. The paper uses a descriptive qualitative approach case study design that focuses on primary and secondary data showing the real ground of crisis. Data has been collected from the interviewees and experts. This research sets multiple methods of data collection including documents, policy, and historical analysis.</p> <p><strong>Findings: </strong>Environmental imbalance occurred due to allocating 1,000 acres forest land for providing shelters to the refugees. Reserve forest has been destroyed endangering wild elephants. And it is causing landslides in the area, soil erosion, water scarcity, extreme heat wave, extreme rainfall, drought, deforestation, air pollution, and so on.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This research leads to identifying the areas which have already been affected. The plans that need to work on to overcome the problems and that could provide necessary and sustainable solutions for Rohingya refugee. This study also could let people know the catastrophe Bangladesh is dealing and the impacts which can cause the ecological imbalance and failure the biodiversity of the areas in a greater way. This paper could bring benefit to society and make people conscious about the environment and also make them raise voices for the conservation of environment.</p> Md. Abdul Halim Sumiya Majumder Rinta Md. Al Amin Azmira Khatun Adnan Habib Robin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-13 2021-12-13 189 203 10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i430269 Characterization of Clay from Isan Ekiti Deposits for Making the Ceramic Water Purifier <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Despite the efforts of Governments and non-governmental organizations in sponsoring ceramic water purifier (CWP) filter project across the globe, some rural communities in Ekiti State, Nigeria are yet to benefit from it. One of the major technical difficulties hindering the making of CWP filter cells in many places was the adaptation to the sand, clay and sawdust mixture necessary to obtain the correct filter properties.</p> <p><strong>Aim: </strong>In this study, some salient properties of clay from <em>orudi</em>, <em>arade</em> and <em>oturo</em> deposits at Isan Ekiti were assessed in the light of their usefulness for making the ceramic water filter cells.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The particle size distribution analysis and consistency tests were carried out on the crude clay. Also the shrinkage, effects of percentage constituents of burnout on porosity, filtration rate and quality of filtrate were measured, using standard methods.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Results show that <em>arade</em> has the appropriate technical properties for making the filter cell. The chosen clay sample has its deposit less than 2 kilometers to the point of making. About 56% of its particles are less than 0.075mm equivalent spherical diameter (ESD). A composition of ratio 50:50 by volume mixture of clay to sawdust has the&nbsp;&nbsp; porosity of 54. 55% while that of ratio 40:60 is 55.56%. Samples made of these batches were capable of reducing the water turbidity Neflometric Turbidity Unit (NTU) of contaminated water by 95%.&nbsp; The 50:50 samples have the higher capacity of reducing total coliform count by 50.28% as against 25.07% for 40:60 samples.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Given appropriate facilities and training, with the abundant clay at <em>arade</em> deposit, the pottery center is a place where CWP filter cell factory could be established.</p> I. J. Akinruli F. T. Akinruli ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-14 2021-12-14 204 215 10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i430270 Study and Feasibility of a Flat Collector Cooker using Vegetal Heat Transfer Fluid <p>Solar cookers currently produced are solar systems that use parabolic heat transfer to concentrate sun rays on a cooker. The new trend is focus on the cooker that uses a flat collector operating as a thermosiphon where the heat transfer fluid (oil) flows by natural convection. They are developed to address household needs at a lower cost, making them popular both in terms of research and use. Some of vegetable oils were previously investigated and which could be used as heat transfer fluids in such systems. A digital study using vegetable oil called "Kibi oil", an artisanal oil produced in Côte d’Ivoire, as a coolant, was conducted under poor weather conditions to calculate temperatures that could be reached in these cases. In the Sahelian zone, conditions are much better than these, and we can expect fairly excellent results.</p> <p>This study focused on temperature variation at different areas (1, 2, 3 and 4 specified in the diagram) of the cooker, on the mass flow of the fluid throughout the study day and to some quantities which enable to follow the performance of the solar collector of the stove. Sunlight measurements used are those of the city of Abidjan made in September, a very cloudy day with poor weather conditions. Temperature T3, very close to that of the hot plate, was around 110 °C between 10:30 am and 12:30 pm, which enables to cook certain dishes during this period. It should be noticed that at the exit of the flat panel collector, over the same period, the temperature is around 120 ° C. At that same time, the collector efficiency varies around 30%.</p> Palm Kalifa Kabore Arouna Ouedraogo Boukaré Lankouande Roland Sanogo Oumar Bathiebo Joseph Dieudonné Toure Siaka Zeghmati Belkacem ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-16 2021-12-16 216 223 10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i430271 Selected Metal Contents and Phytochemical Profiling of Ficus capreifolia and Mangifera indica Commonly used Antidiabetic Plants from Oil Producing Region of Nigeria <p><strong>Aim: </strong>The study evaluated selected metal contents and phytochemicals present in <em>Ficus capreifolia</em> and <em>Mangifera</em> <em>indica</em> extracts commonly used antidiabetic plants from Aluu and Bodo communities in Rivers State, Nigeria. &nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>University of Port-Harcourt, Choba, Rivers State, Nigeria and its environs was used between June to November, 2020.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong><em>Composite</em> soil samples and the leaves of <em>Ficus</em> <em>capreifolia</em> and <em>Mangifera indica</em> were collected from Bodo and Aluu communities respectively. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer was employed for the analysis of the metals (Zn, Pb, Ni, Mn, Fe, Cu, As and Cr). The plant extracts were screened for the presence of various phytochemicals using spectrophotometric methods.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Flavonoid, Saponins, Tannins, Alkaloids. Terpenoid, Glycoside and Carotenoid were detected in <em>Ficus</em> <em>carpreifolia</em> obtained from Bodo and Aluu communities while <em>Magnifera</em> <em>indica</em> obtained from both communities has Alkaloids, Phenols, Flavonoids, Saponins and Tannins detected. Metals such as Zn, Pb, Mn, Fe and As were detected at Bodo and Aluu soil samples.&nbsp; Cu, Ni and Cr were below the detectable limit. Zn, Pb and As were above the permissible limit in Bodo soil samples while only As was above the permissible limit in Aluu community. In the plant samples, only Mn was present and was within the permissible limit in plants samples obtained from Bodo and Aluu communities while Zn, Pb, Ni, Fe, Cu, As and Cr were below the detectable limit.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study shows that <em>Ficus capriefolia and Mangifera indica</em> do not bioaccumulate&nbsp; Fe, Zn, Ni, Pb, As and Cr &nbsp;and this may be attributed to the&nbsp; metal intolerance potential of the plants, hence no fear of metal toxicity when using these plants&nbsp; for medicinal purposes. The presence of saponins, tannins and flavonoid affirmed the hypoglycemic potentials of the plants.</p> Tetam, Jack Gbenenee Wegwu, Matthew Owhonda Ikewuchi, Catherine Chidinma ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-20 2021-12-20 247 253 10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i430274 Contribution of the Characteristics of Farmers to use of Coping Strategies towards Household Food Security <p>A study was carried out at each of three flood affected reverine villages of three upazilas (small administrative unit) under Jamalpur district in Bangladesh during September, 2011 to May, 2012 to find out the contribution of the characteristics of the farmers to the use of coping strategies towards household food security practiced by the farmers during flood. Data were collected from randomly selected 336 respondents both the qualitative and quantitative techniques and analyzed with the help of SPSS. Out of 18 characteristics, 11 had positive, 2 had negative and 5 had no significant relation with coping strategies towards household food security during flood period. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that six variables namely participation in income generating activities (IGAs) (20.1 percent), knowledge on flood coping mechanisms (8.5 percent), cosmopoliteness (6.5 percent), utilization percentage of received credit (2.0 percent), water and sanitation condition&nbsp; (1.6 percent) and year round household food situation (0.8 percent) were the major contributing variables which combindly explained 39.5 percent of total variations. Path analysis revealed that knowledge on flood coping mechanisms had the highest positive direct effects (0.285) and participation in IGAs had highest positive indirect effects (0.169) on coping strategy practices. Considering the relative contribution on the coping strategy practices towards household food security during flood period, based on their direct effects, the six variables could be arranged as follows knowledge on flood coping mechanism <em>&gt;</em> participation in income generating activities <em>&gt;</em> cosmopoliteness<em> &gt;</em> water and sanitation condition <em>&gt;</em> year round household food situation <em>&gt;</em> utilization of received credit.</p> M. E. Haque M. N. Islam M.G. Mostafa M. A. Majid M. R. Islam M. M. Haque M. Y. Uddin M. J. Alam J. Tasnim N. Muhammad M. Z. Turin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-22 2021-12-22 254 262 10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i430275 Effect of Different Diets on the Growth Rate of the Rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis under 40 ppt Salinity Stress <p>Aquaculture is important business some fish farms use underground water that may has high salinity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of eight different types of diets on enhancing the growth rate of the rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis lives in 40 ppt saline water in 2020. The diets used in the study are T1 (Nannochloropsis oculata), T2 (Tetraselmis suecica), T3 (N. oculata + T. suecica), T4 (N. oculata + yeast; Saccharomyces cerevisiae), T5 (T. suecica + yeast), T6 (S. parkle), T7 (S. Parkle + yeast) and T8 (yeast). The results revealed that the rotifer fed for S. parkle showed the highest growth population (818 Indv. /mL) with a highly significant difference (p &lt; 0.05). On the other hand, rotifers fed the yeast (S. cerevisiae) showed the lowest population growth (355 Indv. /mL). The outcome of the current study indicates that S. parkle commercial diet is very appropriate for the stock culture of B. plicatilis due to its ability to increase the growth rate of the rotifer in a short time under the current conditions. S. Parkle feeding led to an increase in the densities of rotifers in high salinities.</p> Ahmed M. M. Heneash Khalid Abd Al-Rahman Mohsen Y. Omer ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-23 2021-12-23 263 271 10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i430276 A Review of Mining Regulations and Environmental Sustainability of Artisanal Gold Mining Sector <p>Artisanal and small-scale gold mining imparts on economic development more significantly in developing countries, but it is also responsible for serious environmental deterioration and human health concerns. Despite, the robust environmental legislations focused at mitigating the pernicious environmental and human health effects, little attention has been given to integration of environmental sustainability concepts into these regulations. This paper aims at addressing this gap by utilizing a systematic literature review methodology to analyze regulatory gaps and identify areas for improvement for integration of sustainable development. This study employed a systematic review designed to identify published scholarly studies on artisanal gold mining regulations for their effectiveness on environmental sustainability in the ASGM sector. A total of 159 papers were retrieved from the selected databases, 41 passed the inclusion criteria after a conscientious data analysis forming the evidence synthesis. After a rigorous data analysis, we find that the existing literature on ASGM regulations, largely do not systematically integrate critical issues of environmental sustainability. We found that, the regulations have concentrated on effects of chemicals such as mercury and cyanide mining technologies to minimize pollution and environmental assessments, while at the same time failing to address regulatory components of social issues, lack environmental incentives for the poor miners to improve production, lack of alternative technologies, lack of social securities, economic incentives and relevant trainings and awareness creation on health and safety which will continue to motivate unsustainable operations. It is thus strongly proposed that environmental sustainability concepts should be systematically and simultaneously integrated into ASGM regulations and policies in order to promote community livelihoods while protecting the environment from its rudimentary activities. The existing literature on ASGM regulations is unsystematic and inconsistent with most of it failing to fully address environmental sustainability challenges</p> Leonard L. Tampushi John M. Onyari Nzioka J. Muthama ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 1 16 10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i430253 Plastic Pollutions in Aquatic Environment- A Review <p>Plastic pollution in aquatic ecosystems is a growing environmental concern, as it has the potential to harm ecology, imperil aquatic organisms and cost ecological damage. Although rivers and other freshwater environments are known to play an important role in carrying land-based plastic trash to the world's seas, riverine ecosystems are also directly impacted by plastic pollution. A detailed understanding of the origin, movement, fate, and effects of riverine plastic waste is critical for better quantifying worldwide plastic pollution transport and effectively reducing sources and dangers. In this review, we emphasize the current scientific state of plastic debris in rivers, as well as the existing knowledge gaps, providing a basic overview of plastics and the types of polymers commonly found in rivers and the threat they bring to aquatic ecosystems. We also go through the origins and fates of riverine plastics, as well as the mechanisms and factors that affect plastic debris transit and spatiotemporal variation. We give an overview of riverine plastic transport monitoring and modeling activities, as well as examples of typical values from throughout the world. Finally, we discuss what the future holds for riverine plastic research.</p> Y. M. Mohammed M. Hadizat M. A. Umar Y. Ibrahim H. Mohammed I. M. Ibrahim A. S. Muhammad Y. Umar H. Kanki ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-01 2021-12-01 144 155 10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i430265 Pesticide Use in Bangladesh: A Review on Potential Impacts <p>Bangladesh is a densely populated agricultural country. A wide range of products of pesticides being used in Bangladesh is already considered a health and environmental concern by different international agencies including the World Health Organization (WHO). Excessive, irrational use of pesticides in agriculture, and lack of knowledge on pest management have caused widespread pesticide pollution which is now posing a substantial threat to the environment and local people. In this review, we assessed and analyzed previous literature systematically to map a complete scenario of pesticide pollution in Bangladesh, covering soil, water, and foods. Most of the previous studies indicated that soil, water, and different seasonal vegetables are contaminated with organophosphorus, pyrethroid, and exceeded the FAO/WHO maximum residual limits. Concentration of chlorpyriphos, malathion were found below the detection limit in soil samples. But water samples were found contaminated with chlorpyrifos, diazinon, malathion, carbaryl and carbofuran. Considered vegetable samples were adulterated with fenvalerate, quinalphos, cypermethrin, fenitrothion, dimethoate, parathion, linuron, phenthoate. Persistence of organochlorines in the environment is limited and meets the maximum residue level (MRLs). This study will help to depict the pesticide pollution status in the environmental matrices in recent years and to cut off the exacerbation of pesticide pollution. A proactive approach is essential to limit the pesticide pollution load in the environmental matrices.</p> Shapon Chandro Barmon Bijan Mohon Chaki Youyi Wu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-17 2021-12-17 224 241 10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i430272