Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology 2023-09-25T13:26:33+00:00 Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Asian Journal of Environment &amp; Ecology (ISSN: 2456-690X)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘Environment and Ecology’. By not excluding papers based on novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open-access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> Air Pollution in Medium-Sized Mexican Cities 2023-09-05T10:59:39+00:00 Hermes Ulises Ramírez-Sánchez Aida Lucia Fajardo-Montiel <p>Medium-sized cities are in the population range of between 500,000 and one million inhabitants. Despite the importance of large cities, the greatest urban growth occurs in medium and small cities. During the last century these cities enjoyed acceptable air quality, however from the last years of the last century and the two decades of this century the atmospheric health has deteriorated, generating problems. The dynamics of population growth faced by these cities represent a serious threat to the environment, as well as to the health and quality of life of its inhabitants, since it generates new economic processes, accompanied by an increase in industrial activities, motorization rates, greater fuel consumption and higher emissions of air pollutants.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong><strong>:</strong> To carry out an analysis of the air quality condition and to show the trends of the criteria pollutants for 10 medium-sized Mexican cities with the highest population growth.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong><strong>:</strong> The data for the analysis of air quality of medium-sized cities were downloaded from the consultation system of Air Quality Indicators-SCICA through the website. The downloaded data are hourly concentrations of the six criteria pollutants PM<sub>10</sub>, PM<sub>2.5</sub>, O<sub>3</sub>, SO<sub>2</sub>, NO<sub>2</sub> and CO for the monitoring stations of the cities of Aguascalientes (863 893 h), Mexicali (854 186 h), Ciudad Juárez (1 501 551 h), Chihuahua (925 762 h), León (1 579 803 h), Morelia (743 275 h), Puebla (1 542 232 h), Querétaro (794 789 h)), San Luis Potosí (854 186 h) and Torreón (690 193 h), indicators were calculated of the daily, monthly and annual trend, averages, percentages of days with concentrations above the norm and number of days per year in which any of the norms is exceeded during the period 2000-2020. Compliance with environmental health NOMs (at one hour, 8 h, 24 h and annually) was evaluated depending on the pollutant criterion.</p> <p><strong>Results and Discussion</strong><strong>:</strong> Medium-sized cities have grown between 21 and 55% in the last 20 years, some surpassing the category of medium cities. The concentrations of PM<sub>10</sub>, PM<sub>2.5 </sub>and O<sub>3</sub> in all medium-sized cities are almost always above the normativity which represents a risk to the health of the population. The concentrations of CO, NO<sub>2 </sub>and SO<sub>2</sub> are below the limits of the regulations, so these pollutants currently do not represent a risk to the population of medium-sized cities. Most cities present less than a third of the year with days out of the norm, only Torreón, Puebla and León present values of one third to two thirds of the year above the norm.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong><strong>:</strong> The pollutants PM<sub>10</sub>, PM<sub>2.5 </sub>and O<sub>3</sub> represent a risk to the health of the population of medium cities in Mexico, while the concentrations of CO, NO<sub>2 </sub>and SO<sub>2</sub> currently do not represent a risk for the population of medium cities.</p> 2023-09-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Ramírez-Sánchez and Fajardo-Montiel; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The Public Perception of the Existence of Coal Mines in South Kalimantan Province, Indonesia 2023-09-08T11:50:19+00:00 Supriyono Asfawi Slamet Isworo <p><strong>Background and Objectives: </strong>The coal mining business is a source of foreign exchange for the country, but it is also thought to have a negative impact on the environment, therefore its continued existence can lead to a variety of public perceptions, both positive and negative<strong>. </strong>The purpose of this study is to ascertain public perceptions of the coal mining industry's existence and operational implications.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The survey approach was used in this study to obtain information from respondents. Questions were posed using interviews, questionnaires, and secondary data.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The community leadership structure in the study area is that 35 respondents (48%) follow non-formal leadership, while 38 respondents (52%) follow formal leadership. Most community conflicts are usually triggered by land boundary disputes (38%), and complaints are not responded to (38%), and are resolved by consensus deliberation. Community responses to the impact of coal transportation are health problems (52%), the impact of the presence of coal mines is an increase in the economy (54%), disruption to public roads (66%), noise (66%), and air quality (72%). Coal hauling activities also have an impact on improving business prospects, namely 10% of respondents stated significant (high), 66% moderate, and 24% none. while for the criteria for increasing income, 16% of respondents stated an increase of 62%, a small increase, and 22% did not report. The environmental disturbance parameter stated that 60% of respondents felt disturbed and 40% did not. Environmental management activities on the impact of coal mining operations are 20% of respondents stating good, 34% abstaining and 22% not good.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Community development and empowerment programs around the mine site must be implemented properly, and mine exploration permit holders must strictly adhere to the environmental impact analysis document and environmental management monitoring plan approved by the Ministry of Environment and Forestry.</p> 2023-09-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Asfawi and Isworo; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Bacteriological Analysis of Iyiukwu Stream Water in Uhuagu Awgu L.G.A Enugu State, Nigeria 2023-09-11T10:33:02+00:00 Ewoh Anthonia Ngozi Chinwe Jacinta Aneke Ifeanyi Boniface Ezea <p>The majority of the population of the Iyiukwu community in the Awgu Municipal Area of ​​Enugu State in Nigeria depends on the Iyiukwu stream for its water supply. Due to the recent dcrease in cases of waterborne diseases, a study was conducted to examine the bacteriological characteristics of the Iyiukwu stream in order to protect public health from waterborne diseases. Five of this water samples taken from both the longitudinal profile and bottom level of the creek were tested for&nbsp; bacteriological properties using standard methods. Total bacterial counts were determined using the cast plate technique and total bacterial counts. From water samples three genera of bacteria genus Klebsiella Alcaligenes and Salmonella were isolated. Total bacterial counts in water samples ranged from 0 to 32 ×10<sup>2</sup> CFU/ml. Total bacterial counts in the water samples analyzed ranged from MPN index 0 to 39 for coliforms per 50 ml. It was concluded that not all stream water is suitable for consumption and appropriate measures should be taken to clean and treat stream water on a regular basis before drinking.</p> 2023-09-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Ngozi et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Community Knowledge and Attitudes towards the Critically Endangered Mountain Bongo in Mount Kenya Wildlife Conservancy 2023-09-14T05:58:17+00:00 Justin Njeru Peter Fundi <p><strong>Aims: </strong>To assess local community knowledge and attitudes towards the conservation of the critically endangered Mountain bongo in Mt Kenya Wildlife Conservancy.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>&nbsp;Descriptive research design was used.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> The study was conducted in the community neighboring Mount Kenya Wildlife Conservancy and the adjacent part of the Mt Kenya Forest during the month of March 2020.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The survey targeted approximately 500 households that are less than 3 kilometers from the conservancy and forest boundaries. Households were considered as sampling units and these were selected using systematic random sampling technique. The interviews were conducted in a semi-structured manner and colored photographs of the Mountain bongo and 12 other selected mammals found in the region were used to assess respondent’s basic knowledge about the animals.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results captured 142 informants where 71.8% of the respondents could identify the mountain bongo but only 18.3% were aware of its vernacular name. Knowledge on habitat requirements, feeding habits, threats and conservation value differed significantly from what was expected (p&lt;0.05). Based on logistic regression, the knowledge could be predicted based on gender and age and whether one had a previous interaction with the animal.&nbsp; We found that 57% of the respondents supported bongo conservation whereas 40.8% were undecided and this was associated with lack of knowledge about the animal.&nbsp; In addition 27.5% of the respondents appreciated mountain bongo because of attracting tourists, 12.0% felt that the antelope was attractive, 8.5% liked its size, 4.2% liked its products such as bushmeat, 4.2% liked its aggressiveness and 0.7% liked its interesting behaviour.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Although bongos could be identified by most respondents, basic ecological knowledge of the animal is limited in the community. A pro-conservation attitude towards bongos exists in the community, but the utilitarian value attached to it and its habitat could be a threat to its conservation in the Mt Kenya. Local community support for conservation of the Mountain bongo in Mt Kenya was influenced by gender, age and knowledge of the animal and these factors should be considered when creating conservation awareness in the community.</p> 2023-09-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Njeru and Fundi; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Agroecosystem Sustainability in Forest Dependent Tribal Villages in Odisha, Eastern India 2023-09-21T07:53:29+00:00 B. K. Nayak M. K. Mishra V. P. Upadhyay <p>The present study was carried out in Niyamgiri hills inhabited by primitive Dongaria tribes in Odisha to assess present state of socioeconomic components of village and efficiency and viability of production systems at the current level of natural resource dependency and to find out the linkage between human community and forest ecosystem. The study area comprises of eight villages where human population varies from 83 to 312 in uphill villages and 76 to 150 in foothill villages. The cultivated area ranges from 3.37% to 18.85% of the total village geographical area with per capita cultivated area&nbsp; 0.117 to 0.329 ha.. The quality of forest has been affected due to absolute dependency on resources which calls for taking appropriate step to enhance forest productivity. All villages depend on rain fed agriculture, natural stream water is used to cultivate paddy in valleys, shifting (Podu) cultivation practiced in uphill areas, mid hill orchards below the Podu area and home garden adjoining habitation. Cereals, pulses and oil seeds are grown together in Podu areas.&nbsp; Maize is a major cereal as staple food grown in uphill villages. The village productivity of Millets, legumes and paddy is much lower than other settled agriculture areas of the state. The home garden areas are grown with vegetables and cereals especially for domestic use. However,&nbsp; vegetables like Tomato, Brinjal, Bin, Sweet Potato, Chilly from foothill villages are marketed.&nbsp; Home garden provides variety of requirements to the tribal community round the year. The production of agriculture sub-system is not sufficient to meet the food requirement of villages and rice distributed to villagers meet this gap. However, crops grown as horticulture products (Jackfruit, Pine apple, Banana, Orange, Mango) and a few Millet crops in the uphill villages like minor Millets, are exported to markets for earning money as these are only assets recorded as high energy valued products. Odisha Millet Mission (OMM) may need to provide interventions to these villages with modern approach to increase Millet productivity including improvements in seed quality and health condition of the tribal community. To ensure sustainability of the traditional cultivation and livelihood system, involving the people of these villages in forest-based activities other than agriculture will lead to protecting the indigenous biodiversity of this region.</p> 2023-09-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nayak et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The Distribution of Oceanographic Parameter Conditions in the Swordfish (Xiphias gladius) Fishing Ground in the Southern Indian Ocean off Java 2023-09-23T12:19:54+00:00 Hasmawati Adam <p>The Southern Indian Ocean off Java is one of the potential locations for catching swordfish. One crucial factor in improving fishermen's productivity is the availability of information regarding the characteristics of waters related to potential fishing areas. This research aimed to determine the distribution conditions of several oceanographic parameters such as sea surface temperature, salinity, chlorophyll-a, and surface currents using remote sensing data at the swordfish <em>(Xiphias gladius</em>) fishing ground in the Southern Indian Ocean off Java. This research was conducted from April 27, 2022, to December 12, 2022, in the Indian Ocean. Data for several oceanographic parameters were obtained from the <em></em> website from April 2022 to December 2022, and the coordinates of the swordfish <em>(Xiphias gladius) </em>fishing ground were obtained from KM Lulu Marina 08, which operates in WPPD 57. Data from <em></em> are the result of reanalysis methods developed by the Copernicus Marine Service (CMS) using multisensor satellite images data such as MODIS-AQUA, NOAA20-VIIRS, NPP-VIIRS, and Sentinel 3A-OLCI. The spatial resolution of the data was standardized to 0.001 degrees using resampling techniques with B-Spline interpolation. The highest sea surface temperature (SST) at each fishing ground was recorded in April 2022 at the fishing ground ST 1, reaching 27.52°C. The lowest SST was observed in November 2022 at fishing ground ST 6, measuring 21.70°C. The lowest salinity values at each fishing ground were recorded in June 2022 at fishing ground ST 1, measuring 34.09 psu, while the highest salinity values were found in April 2022 at fishing ground ST 6, measuring 35.38 psu. The lowest chlorophyll-a concentration values at each fishing ground were recorded in December 2022 at fishing ground ST 6, measuring 0.062 mg/m<sup>3</sup>, while the highest concentration values were found in September 2022 at fishing ground ST 6, measuring 0.357 mg/m<sup>3</sup>. The lowest catch was recorded in September 2022, with only 2 fish caught, while the highest catch was recorded in November 2022, with a total of 42 fish caught. The optimal swordfish catch rate falls within the range of SST 23.47-24.74°C, salinity 34.45-34.78 psu, and chlorophyll-a concentration in the range of 0.079-0.124 mg/m<sup>3</sup>.</p> 2023-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Hasmawati and Adam; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Management of Biomedical Waste in the South of the Democratic Republic Congo: Current Situation 2023-09-25T13:26:33+00:00 Kasamba I. E. Kasongo Aimé Nathalie Kaj Kayomb Cyrille Katshiez Delly Ngoyi Kabwe Malangu M. E. P. <p>Effective management of biomedical waste is mandatory for healthy human beings and a safe environment. Poor management of biomedical waste is a community health problem. This article reviews the methods of biomedical waste management. The management of biomedical waste is a significant challenge in the south of DR Congo in terms of the implementation of the types of bins, the concentration of bleach used and the method of waste disposal. Staff training and awareness of waste management waste is of great interest to the community and the associated employees.</p> 2023-09-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Kasamba et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.