Human Health Risk Assessment of Some Trace Metals through Fish Consumption from Qua Iboe River, Oruk Anam, Nigeria

Nsima Amos Akpan *

Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Ritman University, Ikot Ekpene, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Food consumption is an important route of human exposure to organic chemicals. To assess the health risks associated with these chemicals due to fish consumption, the levels of trace metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Cu, V, Pb and Sn) in water and fish from Qua Iboe River were assessed using atomic absorption spectrometry (ASS). Physicochemical parameters in water were determined using standard methods. The levels of physicochemical parameters in water were within permissible limits set by World Health Organisation (WHO). The levels of trace metals in water samples varied from one sampling location to another and ranged from 0.01± 0.01 to 0.10 ±0.00mg/L in wet season and from 0.01± 0.01 to 0.08± 0.01 mg/L in dry season. In fish, the levels ranged from 0.01± 0.01 to 0.61 0.01 mg/kg in wet season and from 0.02± 0.01 to 0.51± 0.01mg/kg in dry season. Results of physicochemical parameters showed variations across the sampling locations and seasons. Human health risk of trace metals contamination due to consumption of the fish revealed that hazard quotient (HQ) values were all less than unity (HQ <1). It therefore means that there is no health risk implication for consumers of commercial fish from the river. From the results, routine monitoring of these metals in studied river is strongly recommended to check escalation. Riverine communities should be educated by government on danger associated with indiscriminate disposal of wastes into aquatic environment.

Keywords: Trace metals, physicochemical, fish, analysis, statistical, Oruk Anam, Nigeria

How to Cite

Akpan, N. A. (2024). Human Health Risk Assessment of Some Trace Metals through Fish Consumption from Qua Iboe River, Oruk Anam, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, 23(5), 19–29.


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