Seasonal Variation in Physicochemical Properties of Water in Onitsha Metropolis, Southeastern, Nigeria

Okolo C. M. *

Department of Geological Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

Onuorah I. D.

Department of Geological Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

Madu F. M.

Department of Geological Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


The study area is a metropolitan city with major markets and industries in the heart of Anambra State, Nigeria. A total of thirty (30) samples was collected over two seasons and were analysed for various physicochemical parameters. The result was used to evaluate the seasonal variation in the various water parameters. The results show that there were no significant seasonal variations in the concentration values of pH, EC, NO3, CO3, SO4, Pb and TDS. However, seasonal variations were observed in the concentrations of Mg, Ca, Cl, Mn, Hg, Na, Cd. Cu, Ni and Ag. The concentrations of the physical parameters, the major cations and anions and some of the heavy metals were within the permissible limit of the WHO standard. Furthermore, the concentrations for turbidity, mercury and cadmium in some of the water samples were above the permissible limits in both seasons. The water quality index (WQI) categorized the samples as good, poor, very poor and unfit for consumption while heavy metal pollution index (HPI) classified the water as poor to very poor. The WQI and HPI are season dependent and these ratings indicated that the water sources are heavily contaminated, and should be properly treated before drinking.

Keywords: Physicochemical, water quality index, heavy metal pollution index, water quality

How to Cite

Okolo C. M., Onuorah I. D., & Madu F. M. (2023). Seasonal Variation in Physicochemical Properties of Water in Onitsha Metropolis, Southeastern, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, 22(4), 39–52.


Download data is not yet available.


Efe ST. Urban Warming in Nigerian cities. The case of Warri metropolis. African Journal of Environmental Studies. 2002a;2(2) 6.

Ayoade JO. Tropical hydrology and water resources. London and Basingstoke, Macmillan Publishers, Ibadan; 1988.

Adebola KD. Groundwater quality in ilorin township: An environmental review. African Journal of Environmental Studies. 2001;2(2):4- 6.

Akudinobi BEB, Okolo CM. Qualitative evaluation of urban water sources in Onitsha Area of Anambra State. Nigeria. International Journal of Environment, Ecology, Family and Urban Studies. 2013;3(1):35-44.


Okolo CM, Akudinobi BEB, Obiadi II, Onuigbo EN, Obasi PN. Hydrochemical evaluation of lower Niger drainage area, southern Nigeria; 2018.

Madu FM, Okoyeh EI, Okolo CM, Aseh P, Elomba UF. Irrigation water quality assessment and hydrochemical facie of Oguta Lake, Southeastern Nigeria. European Journal of Environment and Earth Sciences. 2022;3(1):1– 6.

Zheng M, Keloggs ST. Analysis of bacterial populations in a basalt aquifer. Can. J. Microbial. 1994;40:944-954.

Kelly WR. Heterogeneities in groundwater geochemistry in a sand aquifer beneath an irrigated field. J. Hydrol. 1977;198:154-176.

Kurosawa K. Groundwater quality of a shallow well at a coastal forest and its relation to land use in a surrounding area in Fukuoka City. Bull. Inst. Tropi. Agric. Kyushu Univ. 1997;20:27-36.

Sarukkalige PR. Impacts of land use on groundwater quality in Western Australia. Improving integrated surface water and groundwater resources management in a Vulnerable and changing World. IAHS Publication. 2009;330:136-142.

Ananaba SE, Onu NN, Iwuagwu CJ. Geophysical study of the gravel deposits in Ihiagwa, Owerri, Nigeria. Journal of Mining Geology. 1993;29 (2):95-100.

Short KC, Stauble AJ. Outline of geology of Niger Delta. Am Assoc Pet Geol Bull. 1967;51.

ALPHA. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 23rd edition. Washington, D.C.: American Public Health Association, 2017. Public Health. 2005;(1):1–22.

Brown RM, McCleiland NJ, Deininger RA, O’Connor MF. A water quality index—Crossing the psychological barrier. Proceedings of the International Conference on Water Pollution Research, Jerusalem. 1972;787-797.

WHO. Guidelines for drinking water quality. 4th Edition world health organisation Genève Switzerland; 2010.

NSDWQ. Nigerian standard for drinking water quality. Committee on drinking water quality in Nigeria, Lagos; 2017.

Mohan SV, Nithila P, Reddy SJ. Estimation of heavy metal in drinking water and development of heavy metal pollution index. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, A. 1996;31:283-289.

Bisi-Johnson MA, Adediran KO, Akinola SA, Popoola EO, Okoh AI. Comparative physicochemical and microbiological qualities of source and stored household water in some selected communities in southwestern Nigeria. Sustain. Sustainable Development Initiatives towards Poverty Alleviation. 2017;9(3).

Ocheri MI, Oklo A. Seasonal variration in physicochemical characteristics of rural groundwater of Benue state Nigeria. Journal of Asian Scientific Research. 2019;2(10):574-586.

Okimiji O, Okafor AT, Adedeji OH, Oguntoke O, Shittu OB. Seasonal variation in physicochemical properties of drinking water quality around slum Settlements of Lagos Metropolis. Ethopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management. 2021;14(1):84-97.

APHA. (America Public Health Association) Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste Water. 18th Edition, Washington, D.C. 2005;4-17.

WHO. WHO guidelines for drinking water quality. Eisei kagaku. 2008;35(5):307–12.

Todd D, Mays L. Groundwater hydrology. 3rd Edition, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., Hoboken. 2005;652.

Igbokwe SO, Ogueri O, Ajima MNO. Seasonal variation in physicochemical characteristics of Agulu Lake South Eastern Nigeria. International Journal of Fisheries and aquatic Studies. 2021;9(2):91-97.


Back W, Hanshaw BB. Chemical geohydrology. In: Chow VT (Editor) Advances in Hydroscience. Academic Press, New York. 1965;49- 109.

Roshinebegam K, Selvakumar S. Seasonal changes in physicochemical parameters of Mullai Periyar River, Tamil Nadu, India. Chemical Science Review and Letters. 2014;3(9):66-73.

Okolo CM, Akudinobi BEB, Obiadi II, Okoyeh EI. Assessment of pollution status of lower Niger drainage area, south-Eastern Nigeria using heavy metals. Journal of basic physical research. 2017;3(2):59-67.

Okolo CM, Akudinobi BEB, Obiadi II. Evaluation of water resources of some satellite towns in the central part of Anambra State, SE, Nigeria. Sustain Water Resour Manag. 2020;6:102.

Wang S, Mulligan CN. Occurrence of arsenic contamination in Canada: Sources, Behavior and Distribution, Sci. Total Environ. 2006;366:701-721.

Alhassan A, Balarabe M, Gadzama I. Assessment of some heavy metals in Macrobenthic invertebrates and water samples collected from Kubanni Reservoir Zaria, Nigeria. Federal University of Wukari trends in Science and technology Journal. 2016;1(1):55-60.

Edward A. Seasonal variability of heavy metal concentration in water and sediments from Upper River Benue Yola- Adamawa, State. Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and food technology. 2020;14(2):01-04.

Ogungbile O, Akande A, Ogunbode O, Odekunle O. Assessment of heavy metal levels of Agodi Reservoir in Ibadan, Nigeria. Journal of applied Science of environmental management. 2019;23(11):1969-1975.

Akoteyon IS, Omotayo AO, Sodadoye O, Olaoye HO. Determination of water quality index and suitability of urban river for municipal water supply in Lagos, Nigeria. European Journal of Scientific Research. 2011;54(2):263-271.

Ekwenye OC, Nichols G, Mode AW. Sedimentary petrology and provenance interpretation of the sandstone lithofacies of the Paleogene strata, south-eastern Nigeria. J. Afr. Earth Sci. 2015;109:239–262.

Nwajide CS. Geology of Nigeria’s sedimentary basins 2ndEd. Albishara educational publications Eungu, Nigeria. 2013;445.