Some Observations on the Nest Site Selection, Nesting and Other Breeding Behaviors of Greater Adjutant Stork (Leptoptilos dubios) in the Flood Plains of Kosi River in District Bhagalpur, Bihar, India
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, Volume 20, Issue 2,
Greater adjutant stork (Leptoptilos dubios) is the largest and rarest stork belonging to the order Ciconiformes. It is one of the threatened bird species of the world and widely considered to be endangered. The present investigation was carried out to study the nest site selection, nest tree and other breeding behaviours of Greater adjutant stork on the flood plains of Kosi river in district Bhagalpur, Bihar, India in three breeding seasons from 2019 to 2021. Total 12 breeding colonies of Greater adjutant stork were recorded in 2019, 10 in 2020 and 2021 respectively. During these periods, 277 chicks were reared in 123 nests in 2019, 282 chicks in 126 nests in 2020 and 236 chicks in 105 nests in 2021 respectively. Most of the nest trees were located on the road side in and around the villages. Storks mainly selected Kadamb, Peepal, Pakar, Gamhar and Semel trees for the nest building but the Kadamb was the most preffered tree species. Nesting materials used by the GAS were mainly sticks, twigs and fresh leaves of Pigeon wood, Jalebia, Dhaincha, Jamun, Peepal, Gulmohar, Kadamb, and Semal tree. Nests were large spherical structure made of plant sticks mostly on the top of the tree and on the tip of large horizontal branches. Both the sexes alternately shared incubation and protection of the chicks after hatching. The parent birds also collected green leaves from nearby trees for cushioning the nest . The breeding season of Greater adjutant stork was recorded between September to April in Bihar. The incubation period was ranging between 37 to 39 days. Two to three chicks on one nest were common. The adult and juveniles finally vacated the nest before third week of April.
- Greater adjutant stork
- nest tree
- nest site
- Kosi flood plain
How to Cite
Ali S, Ripley, SD. A compact Hand Book of birds of India and Pakistan. Oxford University Press, Mumbai, India;1989.
Ali S. The Handbook of Indian birds. Oxford University Press, New Delhi. 1996:310-315.
Istiaq F. Summaries of the Ph.D. theses on birds. Buceros. 2001;6(3):45-51.
Choudhary DN, Mandal JN, Rohitashwa R. Distribution and potential breeding records of lesser & Greater Adjutant Storks in Bihar, India. Indian BIRDS. 2011;7(2):38-40.
Grimmett RC, Inskipp C, Inskipp T. Pocket guide to the Birds of Indian subcontinent. New Delhi, Oxford University of press. 1999.
Mishra A, Mandal JN. Discovery of a breeding ground of the Greater Adjutant stork (Leptoptilus dubius) and its conservstion in the flood plain of Bihar, India. J. of Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 2009; 196(2):109-197.
Birdlife International;Red list of IUCN (Updated till Nov, 2013), MISTNET. 2014;15(1):12-16.
IUCN. The IUCN Red list of Threatened species, version 2017-3. Downloaded from www.iucnredlist.org. 2018
Barman PD, Sharma DK. Foraging analysis of Endangered Greater Adjutant Stork Leptoptilos dubios Gemlin in certain habitat of Assam, India. 2020;bioRxiv downloaded from https//www.biorxiv.org.
Choudhary DN, Ghosh TK, Mandal JN, Pan TK. Study of breeding behaviour of Greater adjutant stork in the kosi river flood olains of Naugachia in district of Bhagalpur, Bihar, India. IUCN - Rivers for life:proceeding of the International symposium on biodiversity of Ganges- Brahmputra and Megha River System. 2014:99-104.
Singha H. Ecology, Biology and Ethology of Greater Leptoptilos dubius (Gmelin) in Assam, India. Doctoral dissertation. Aligarh Muslim University. 1998.
Rahmani AR, Narayan G, Rosalind L. Status of Greater Adjutant Stork Leptoptilus dubius in the Indian subcontinent. Colonial waterbirds. 1990;13:138-142.
Jetz W, Thomas GH, Joy JB, Redding DW, Hartmann K, Mooers, AO. Global distribution and conservation of evolutionary distinctness in birds. Current biology. 2014;24(9):919-930.
Singha H, Rahmani AR, Coulter MC, Javed S. Surveys for Greater Adjutant Lepoptilos dubius in the Brahmputra valley, Assam, India during 1994-1996. Forktail ;2003a:146-148.
Goswami SK, Patar PJ. Fall in the number of the Greater Adjutant nests in Nagaon, Assam, India . CLP projet ID:F03110012. 2007.
Barman PD, Ali S, Deori P, Sharma DK. Rescue, treatment and release of an endangered Greater Adjutant stork Leptoptilos dubios. Zoo Outreach. Organization. 2015:6.
Birdlife International. Species factsheet: Leptoptilos dubios; 2018. Available:http:/www.birdlife.org
Hancock JA, Kushlan JA, Kahl MP. Storks, ibises and spoonbills of the worlds. Academic Press London. 1992.
Choudhary DN, Ghosh TK. Sighting of Greater Adjutant Storks in the wetlands of North Bihar. Newsletter for Birdwatchers. 2004;44 (4):62-63.
Choudhary SK, Dey S, Mitra A. Sighting of the greater adjutant stork Leptoplilus dubius in Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin Sanctuary (VGDS),Bihar, India. J. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. 2004;101(2):313-314.
Campbel AJ. Nest and eggs of Australian birds. 1990;2:969-970 . Wren Publishing,1974.
Clements T, Kelly H, Sun V. Monitoring of large water birds at Prektoal, Tonle sap Great Lake between 2001-2007. Wildlife Conservation Society Cambodia Program, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. 2007.
Islam MZ, Rahmani AR. Threatened birds of India. Bucerous. 2002;7(1&2):1-102.
Choudhary DN, Mishra A. Sighting of some threatened bird species in Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin Sanctuary (VGDS), Bhagalpur, Bihar. Newsletter for Birdwatches. 2006 ;46(5):68-70.
Barua D. Greater Adjutant Stork nesting in upper Assam. Newsletter for Birdwatchers. 1991 ;31 (1-2):11
Singha H, Rahmani AR, Coulte MC, Javed S. Nesting ecology of the Greater Adjutant Stork in Assam, India. Waterbirds. 2002;25(2):214-220.
Tobolka M, Kuzniak S, Zolnierowicz KM. New is not always better:low breeding success and different occupancy pattern in newly built nests of a long-lived species, the white stork Ciconia ciconia. Bird Study. 2013;60:399-403. DOI:http://doi.org/10.1080/00063657.2013.818934.
Janiszewski T, Mimas P. Wojciechuwski Z. Selective forces responsible for transition to nesting in electricity poles in the white stork Ciconia ardea. 2015;103:39-50. DOI:http//doi.org/105223/arde.v103.
Zawadzki G, Zawadzka D. Wybordrzewgniazdowychprezezmyszolowa, jastrazebia:Kruka W puszczy Augusttowskiej. Sylwan. 2017;161:669-679.
Choudhary DN, Abdullah M, Mandal JN. First ever breeding record of Painted stork along with Greater Adjutant Stork in the flood plains of kosi river in Bhagalpur, Bihar, India. Asian Journal of Research in Zoology. 2022;5(2):23-33.
Clancy GP, Ford HA. Nest site selection and nesting behaviour of Black neck stork (E. asiaticus australis) in Northern New South Wales. 2011;35 (3):95-100.
Bhattacharjee PC, Saikia PK. Conservation of Greater adjutant stork in Assam – Final Technical report, Unpublished WWF Report. 1996.
Ramesh CP, Gundala MP. Painted Storks heronry at Veerapuram village, A.P, India- A case study. International Journal of Botanical Sciences. 2015;4(2):84-88.
Kumar A, Kanaujia A. Nesting behavior of Painted Storks in Lucknow district of Uttar Pradesh, India. Asian Journal of conservation Biology, 2015 ;4(2), 161-163..
Lack, D. Ecological adaptations for breeding in birds. Metheun, London. 1968.
Tiwary NK, Sharma BB, Urfi, AJ. Two new nesting colonies of Painted Stork Mycleria leucocephala from Nothern India. Indian BIRDS. 2014;9(4):85-88.
Suryabanshi KR, Gopisundar KS. Breeding Ecology of Painted stork Mycteria leucocephala in a managed urban wetland. Indian BIRDS. 2019;15(2): 33-37.
Kahl MP. Comparative ethology of the Ciconiidae. Part1. The Marabou stork, Leptoptilos crumenifer US (lesson). Behavior. 1966;27(1):76-106.
Kahl MP. Observation on the breeding of storks in India and Ceylon. JBNHS. 1970; 67:453-461.
Del HJ, Elliot A, Sargatal J. Handbook of the Birds of the World. 1992. Vol. 1 (Lyrinx Ediction – Barcelona).
Choudhary DN. New nesting colony of Openbill stork in Godda district, Jharkhand. Newsletter for Birdwatchers. 2004;39 (2):20.
Ishtiaq F, Rahmani AR, Javed S, Coulter M. Nest site characteristics of Black neck stork and White neck stork in Keoladeo National Park, Bharatpur, India. 2004. JBNHS; 101 :90-95.
Abstract View: 594 times
PDF Download: 44 times