Diversity of Pteridophyte Flora in Rajamala, Eravikulam National Park, Kerala, India
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology,
Aims: To enumerate the fern diversity in the disturbed landscapes of Rajamala part of Eravikulam National Park, Western Ghats
Study Design: Purposive sampling method was adopted in the study area and habitats suitable for ferns were surveyed.
Place and Duration of Study: The study area is Rajamala, a tourist impacted site inside Eravikulam National Park in Kerala, India. Intensive field explorations were carried out in this area during February 2018- April 2019, to document the ferns and fern-allies.
Methodology: A preliminary study was conducted in February 2018 to identify the probable habitats of ferns for further detailed study. Purposive sampling was done in the study area considering the most suitable habitats in both shola ecosystems and grassland ecosystems of the area. Materials for herbaria were processed using standard methods. The collected plants were identified with the help of standard field guides and flora. The potential medicinally important ferns were also listed out.
Results: 54 species of pteridophytes including fern and fern allies belonging to sixteen different families were found from the Rajamala region of Eravikulam National Park. Aspleniaceae was the most common family with 11 species followed by Polypodiaceae. The majority of the Pteridophytes found in the region are showing terrestrial habit. Eleven species found in the study site are medicinally important.
Conclusion: Despite the high tourism pressure in the study area, pteridophyte species richness is higher in the Rajamala region of Western Ghats. The suitable habitat with ideal substrate conditions and year-long moisture availability in the substrates could be the reason for a higher number of pteridophyte species in this area.
- fern allies
- shola forests
- southern western ghats
How to Cite
Chandra S. The ferns of India (Enumeration, Synonyms & Distribution). International Book Distributors. Dehra Dun, India; 2000.
Dixit RD. A census of the Indian Pteridophytes. Flora of India ser. 4, Botanical Survey of India, Howrah, Calcutta, India; 1984.
Patil S, Lavate R, Rawat V, Dongare M. Diversity and distribution of pteridophytes from Satara District, Maharashtra (India). Plant Sci. Today. 2016;3:149–156.
Kramer KU, Green PS, editors. Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms, 1st ed. The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants 1. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg; 1990.
Madhusoodanan PV. Hand Book on ferns and fern allies of Kerala. Malabar Botanical Garden and Institute for Plant Sciences (MBGIPS); 2015.
Dixit RD, Vohra JN. A dictionary of the Pteridophytes of India. Botanical Survey of India, Howrah, Calcutta, India; 1984.
Benjamin A, Manickam VS. Medicinal Pteridophytes from the Western Ghats, Indian J. Tradit. Knowl. 2007;6(4):611-618.
Kaushik P, Dhiman K. Common medicinal Pteridophytes. Indian Fern J. 1995; 12:139-145.
Nayar BK. Medicinal ferns of India. Bull. Nat. Bot. Garden. 1957;29:1-36.
Singh HB, Viswanathan V. Useful Pteridophytes of India – A gift of nature to Human beings, J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 1996: 12: 24-36.
Vasudeva SM. Economic importance of Pteridophytes. Indian Fern J. 1999; 16:130-152
Singh S, Dixit RD, Sahu TR. Ethnomedicinal uses of pteridophytes of Amarkantak, Madhya Pradesh. Indian J. Tradit. Knowl. 2005: 4 (4): 392-395.
Mannan MM, Maridass M, Victor BA. Review on the potential uses of ferns. Ethnobot. leafl. 2008;1:33.
Upreti K, Jalal JS, Tewari LM, Joshi GC, Pangtey YPS, Tewari G. Ethnomedicinal uses of Pteridophytes of Kumaun Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India. J Am Sci. 2009;5(4):167-170.
Perumal G. Ethnomedicinal use of pteridophyte from Kolli Hills, Namakkal District, Tamil Nadu, India. Ethnobot. leafl. 2010;(2):5.
Karthik V, Raju K, Ayyanar M, Gowrishankar K, Sekar T. Ethnomedicinal uses of pteridophytes in kolli hills, Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India. J Nat Prod Plant Resource. 2011;1(2): 50-55.
Sathiyaraj G, Muthukumar T, Ravindran KC. Ethnomedicinal importance of fern and fern allies traditionally used by tribal people of Palani Hills (Kodaikanal), Western Ghats, South India. J. Med. Herbs Ethnomed. 2015;4-9.
Sonia Abraham, Ramachandran VS, Sofia C. Potential ornamental Ferns from Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu. Adv. Appl. Sci. Res. 2012;3(4):2388-2391.
Jermy AC. Conservation of Pteridophytes. In: Kramer KU, Green PS, editors. Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms, 1st ed. The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants 1. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg; 1990.
Chandra S, Fraser-Jenkins C, Kumari A, Srivastava A. A Summary of the Status of Threatened Pteridophytes of India. Taiwania. 2008;53:170–209.
Dudani SN, Mahesh MK, Chandran MDS, Ramachandra, TV. Cyathea nilgirensis Holttum (Cyatheaceae: Pteridophyta): a threatened tree fern from central Western Ghats, India. J. Threat. Taxa. 2014;6: 5413–5416.
Beddome RH. The Ferns of Southern India. Gantz Bros., Madras; 1864.
Manickam VS, Irudayaraj V. Pteridophyte Flora of the Western Ghats – South India. B. I. Publications, New Delhi, India; 1992.
Nampy S, Madhusoodhanan PV. The Fern Flora of South India: Taxonomic Revision of Polypodoid Ferns, Daya Publishing House, Delhi; 1998.
Antony R. The Studies on the Pteridophyte Flora of Agastyamala, Western Ghats. Ph. D thesis, Kannur University; 2013.
Patel M, Reddy MN. Discovery of the World’s Smallest Terrestrial Pteridophyte. Sci. Rep. 2018;8:5911.
Government of Kerala. Management plan of Eravikulam National Park - 2012-13 to 2021-22; 2011.
Mandal KK, Kar T, Pattanaik C, Reddy CS. A census of pteridophytes in Eastern Ghats, India. Trop Plant Res. 2020;7:117–125.
Sureshkumar J, Ayyanar M, Silambarasan, R. Pteridophyte species richness along elevation gradients in Kolli Hills of the Eastern Ghats, India. J. Asia-Pac. Biodivers. 2020;13:92–106.
Deepa J, Parashurama TR, Krishanappa M, Nataraja S. Enumeration of pteridophytes in Madhuguni forest, Central Western Ghats, Karnataka, South India. Indian Fern J. 2011;28:112–119.
Dudani SN, Mahesh MK, Subash CMD, Ramachandra TV. Pteridophyte diversity in wet evergreen forests of Sakleshpur in Central Western Ghat. Ind J PltSci. 2014; 3:28–29.
Deepa J, Parashurama TR, Krishnappa M, Nataraja S. Distribution of pteridophytes in kigga forest, Central western Ghats, Karnataka, South India. Indian Fern J. 2013;30:18–24.
Sukumaran S, Jeeva S, Raj ADS. Diversity of pteridophytes in miniature sacred forests of Kanyakumari district, southern Western Ghats. Indian J. For. 2009; 32:285–290.
Watkins Jr JE, Cardelús C, Colwell RK, Moran RC. Species richness and distribution of ferns along an elevational gradient in Costa Rica. Am. J. Bot. 2006; 93: 73–83.
Karthik V, Raju K, Ayyanar M, Gowrishankar K, Sekar T. Ethnomedicinal uses of pteridophytes in kolli hills, Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India. J Nat Prod Plant Resour. 2011;1:50–55.
Sureshkumar J, Silambarasan R, Bharati KA, Krupa J, Amalraj S, Ayyanar M. A review on ethnomedicinally important pteridophytes of India. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2018;219: 269–287.
Abstract View: 131 times
PDF Download: 56 times