Hydrochemical Characterization of Groundwater Quality in Nkalagu District, Southeastern Nigeria
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology,
Hydrochemical characterization of groundwater quality in Nkalagu District, southeastern Nigeria was carried to determine the main factors controlling the chemistry of groundwater and its suitability for drinking and irrigation purposes. Sixty (60) groundwater samples collected from boreholes and hand-dug wells in different parts of the area were analyzed for a range of physiochemical parameters and heavy metal constituents. The results show that concentration of the major ions were in the order Cl->HCO3->SO42->NO3- and Na>Ca2+>Mg2+>K+. The groundwater samples are slightly acidic with pH of 5.28 to 8.04; moderately hard with TH of 112.88 to 467.78 mg/l. The district is mainly controlled by carbonate and silicate mineral weathering based on the available result. Three main flow regimes were identified with Q-mode cluster analysis. Based on the WQIanalysis results, the groundwater quality in the district was classified, generally as ‘poor’ to ‘excellent’ for drinking purpose. Groundwater quality for drinking purpose were noted to deteriorates as one move from west towards the east of the district, while the north and south part pf the study area indicated the best quality in the district. Groundwater quality for irrigation purpose showed excellent quality based on the United States Salinity Laboratory and Wilcox diagrams. For future use of groundwater resource in the district we recommend implementation rules and guidelines in the area to enhance health and preserve groundwater sources in the district.
- Physiochemical parameters
- water quality index
- groundwater quality
- drinking water quality
How to Cite
Eneke GT. Controls on groundwater chemistry in a highly urbanized coastal area. International Journal of Environmental Research. 2011;5:475–490.
Selvakumar S, Chandrasekar N, Kumar G. Hydro geochemical characteristics and groundwater contaminationin the rapid urban development areas of Coimbatore, India, Water Resources and Industry. 2017;17, 26–33. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wri.2017.02.002
Sunkari ED, Abu M, Bayowobie PS, Dokuz UE. Hydro geochemical appraisal of groundwater quality in the Ga west municipality, Ghana: implication for domestic and irrigation purposes. Groundwater for Sustainable Development. 2019;8: 501–511. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gsd.2019.02.002
Shihab AS, AbdulBaqi YT. Multivariate analysis of groundwater quality of Makhmor Plain North Iraq. Damascus University Journal. 2010;26(1):19–26. DOI:10.1007/s00254-007-1034-x
Okogbue CO, Omonona OV, Aghamelu OP. Qualitative assessment of groundwater from Egbe–Mopa basement complex area, northcentral Nigeria. Environmental Earth Science. 2012;67: 1069–1083. DOI: 10.1007/s12665-012-1552-z
Farm Unit, Ebonyi State University (EBSU), Climatological Data of the Abakaliki area (unpublished). 2017;22-26.
Reyment RA. Aspects of the Geology of Nigeria. Ibadan University Press.1965; 133.
Phillips RI, Folorunso AF, Nton ME, Oluwalaanu JA. Evaluations of Turonian Limestone Formation Exposed at NIGERCEM-Quarry, Nkalagu, Southeastern Nigeria: A Geochemical Approach. The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology. 2009;10(2):763-77.
Amajor LC. Storm induced turbidity-like deposits: An example from the Turonian Eze- Aku formation at Nkalagu, South eastern Nigeria. Nigeria Journal of Mining and Geology. 1992;(28)1:7–17.
Egboka BCE, Anike LO, Olushola I. Potentials for Environmental Pollution/Contamination of Lead-Zinc Areas of Nigeria. Journal of Mining Geology. Workshop.1993;17.
Aghamelu OP, Ezeh HN, Obasi AI. Groundwater exploitation in the Abakaliki metropolis (southeastern Nigeria): Issues and challenges. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2013;7(11):1018-1027. DOI: 10.5897/AJEST12.213
American Public Health Association (APHA). Standards methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 22ndedn, American Public Health Association (APHA), American Water Works Association (AWWA) and Water Environment Federation (WEF), New York, 2012;1360.
Ayuba R, Omonona OV, Onwuka OS. Assessment of groundwater quality of Lokoja Basement area, North-Central Nigeria. Journal of Geological Society of India. 2013; 82(4):413-420. DOI: 10.1007/s12594-013-0168-6
Benvenuti T, Kieling-Rubio M, Klauck C, Rodrigues M. Evaluation of water quality at the source of streams of the Sinos River Basin, southern Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Biology. 2015; 75(2):98–104. Available: https://doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.1513
Fathi E, Zamani-Ahmadmahmoodi R, Zare-Bidaki R. Water quality evaluation using water quality index and multivariate methods, Beheshtabad River, Iran. Applied Water Science.2018; 8(16). Available: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13201-018-0859-7
Kumar VS, Amarender B, Dhakate R, Sankaran S, Kumar KR. Assessment of groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation use in shallow hard rock aquifer of Pudunagaram, Palakkad District Kerala. Applied Water Science. 2014; 6(2):149–167. Available: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13201-014-0214-6
Ravikumar P, Somashekar RK, Prakash KL. A comparative study on usage of Durov and Piper diagrams to interpret hydrochemical processes in groundwater from SRLIS river basin, Karnataka, India. Elixir International Journal. 2015;80: 31073–31077.
Samlafo VB, Ofoe EO. Water quality analysis of bobobo stream, in Tarkwa, Ghana. World Environment. 2018; 8(1):15–19. DOI:10.5923/j.env.20180801.02
Piper AM. A graphic procedure in the geochemical interpretation of water-analyses. Transactions, American Geophysical Union. 1944;25(6):914–928.
Wilcox LV. Classification and use of Irrigation Waters, 969, USDA Circular, Washington, DC, USA; 1955.
Larry PC, Bismark AA, Sandow MY. Assessment of groundwater quality in the Talensi District, Northern Ghana. Hindawi, the Scientific World Journal. 2020; 1-24. Available: https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/8450860
World Health Organisation (WHO).Guidelines for Drinking- Water Quality, WHO, Geneva,Switzerland, 4th edition; 2017.
Singh AK, Hassin SI. Aspects of weathering and solute acquisition processes controlling chemistry of sub-Alpine proglacial streams of Garhwal Himalaya, India. Hydrological Processes. 2002; 16:835- 849. Available: https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.367
Mishra PC, Pradhan KC, Patel RK. Quality of water for drinking and agriculture in and around amines in Keonhar district Orrisa, Indian. Indian Journal of Environmental Health. 2003; 45(3):213–220.
Yidana SM, Banoeng-Yakubo B, Akabzaa TM, Asiedu D. Characterisation of groundwater flow regime and hydrochemistry of groundwater from the Buemformation, Eastern Ghana, Hydrol Process. 2011;25: 288–2301. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2010.03.003
Freeze RA, Cherry JA. Groundwater, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA; 1979.
Gibbs RJ. Mechanisms controlling world water chemistry. Science. 1970; 170(3962):1088–1090.
Rajmohan N, Elango L. Identification and evolution of hydro geochemical processes in the environment in an area of the Palar and Cheyyar river basins, Southern India, Environmental Geology. 2004; 46:47–61. Available: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00254-004-1012-5
Sami K. Recharge mechanisms and geochemical processes in a semi-arid sedimentary basin, Eastern Cape, South Africa. Journal of Hydrology. 1992; 139(1–4):27–48. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1694(92)90193-Y
Zaidi FK, Nazzal YM, Jafri K, Naeem M, Ahmed I. Reverse ion exchange as a major process controlling the groundwater chemistry in an arid environment: a case study from northwestern Saudi Arabia, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 2015; 187(10):1-18. Doi:10.1007/s10661-015-4828-4
Sahu P, Sikdar PK. Hydrochemical framework of the aquifer in and around East Kolkata Wetlands, West Bengal, India. Environmental Geology. 2008; 55(4):823–835. Available: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00254-007-1034-x
United States Salinity Laboratory (USSL). Diagnosis and Improvement of Saline and Alkaline Soils. Washington, DC, USA; 1954.
Richards LA. Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soils. Agricultural hand book 60. Washington D.C.U.S. Department of Agriculture; 1954.
Ajala ON, Olaniyan JO, Affinnih K, Ahamefule HE. Effect of irrigation water quality on soil structure along Asa river bank, Ilorin Kwara State. Bulgarian Journal of Soil Science. 2018;3:34-47. DOI:10.5281/zenodo.2586700
Abstract View: 69 times
PDF Download: 77 times