Ground Water Contamination: Effects and Remedies

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J. M. Hilili
D. I. Onuora
R. U. Hilili
Arowosegbe Folusho Annah
Y. A. Onmonya
M. H. Hilili


Studies on “ground water contamination : effects and remedies” have been conducted, in the light of these, field work studies in Obudu and Obanliku local Government Areas of Cross River State, South Eastern Nigeria, was conducted. Fifteen (15) locations of water for drinking and other domestic uses were carefully studied in the area, with their surface to water depth values recorded. Five(5) of the locations were at surface saturated water depressions(SWD), seven(7) were Hand dug wells(well), while three(3) were bore holes(BH). The physiochemical composition data compared with world Health Organization (WHO) standard shows that, the bore water was safer for drinking than the hand dug wells and surface water in saturated water depressions. Coliform count unite per 100ml of water, were detected in most of the locations in the saturated water depressions and hand dug wells, showing evidence of biogenic interference with the water. Coliform count unite per 100ml of water was not detected in any of the three bore holes, probably due to their depth distance from Biogenic activities. Phosphate and Nitrate levels were significantly above WHO standard in saturated water depressions and Hand dug wells, probably due to erosional and leaching actions of inorganic fertilizers from farm lands and waste from near dump site. It is important to note that most water borne diseases are as a result of ground water communication with contaminant, such as heavy metals, leachate from dump sites, pollutants from inorganic fertilizers, pith toilets   sea water intrusion etc., most boreholes are contaminated by these processes. This is one of the reasons for the increase in the rate of cancer in most developing countries. Hence, heavy metals are known to be carcinogenic to the human cells, and also can cause mutation. The remedies to these include:

  • The process of exploiting and storing ground water should be  done with all  safety  precautions, such as making sure  biochemical parameters  in water are in line with WHO standard
  • Thorough biochemical analysis and test for the presence of heavy metal contamination and coliform count and other contaminants should be done on ground water, before use for domestic and industrial purposes.
  • Surface depth measurement of recharge zones in boreholes should be carried out to ensure that borehole water is from confined aquifers that are safe for domestic and industrial uses.
  • Proper waste disposing system such as engineered toilet pits, engineered dump sites and effective management of electronic waste should be monitored and implemented
  • Where the purity of the water is not satisfactory, such water should be properly treated before used for drinking and other domestic purposes.
Biogenic, dump site, aquifers, leachate actions, carcinogenic, heavy metals, intrusion.

Article Details

How to Cite
Hilili, J. M., Onuora, D. I., Hilili, R. U., Annah, A. F., Onmonya, Y. A., & Hilili, M. H. (2021). Ground Water Contamination: Effects and Remedies. Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, 14(1), 39-58.
Short Research Article


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